Literatur-Liste

  • Aaker, Jennifer L. (1997), “Dimensions of Brand Personality,” SSRN Electronic Journal.
  • Aarts, Henk, Ruud Custers, and Martijn Veltkamp (2008), “Goal Priming and the Affective-Motivational Route to Nonconsious Goal Pursuit,” Social Cognition, 26 (5), 555–77.
  • Aarts, Henk and Ap Dijksterhuis (2003), “The Silence of the Library: Environment, Situational Norm, and Social Behavior,” Journal of personality and social psychology, 84 (1), 18–28.
  • Abougomaah, Naeim H., John L. Schlacter, and William Gaidis (1987), “Elimination and Choice Phases in Evoked Set Formation,” Journal of Consumer Marketing, 4 (4), 67–72.
  • Acar, Adam (2007), “Testing the Effects of incidential Advertising Exposure in Online Gaming Environments,” Journal of Interactive Advertising, 8 (1), 45–56.
  • Aggarwal, Pankaj and Ann L. McGill (2012), “When Brands Seem Human, Do Humans Act Like Brands? Automatic Behavioral Priming Effects of Brand Anthropomorphism,” Journal of Consumer Research, 39 (2), 307–23.
  • Ajzen, Icek (1989), “Attitude Structure and Behavior,” in Attitude Structure and Function, ed. Anthony R. Pratkanis, Steven J. Breckler, and Anthony G. Greenwald, News Jersey, USA: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 241–74.
  • Alba, Joseph W. and J. W. Hutchinson (1987), “Dimensions of Consumer Expertise,” Journal of Consumer Research, 13 (4), 411–54.
  • Alba, Joseph W., J. W. Hutchinson, and John G. Lynch (1991), “Memory and Decision Making,” in Handbook of Consumer Behavior, ed. Thomas S. Robertson and Harold H. Kassarjian, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1–49.
  • Allen, Chris T. and Thomas J. Madden (1985), “A Closer Look at Classical Conditioning,” Journal of Consumer Research, 12 (3), 301–15.
  • Altmann, Erik M. and J. G. Trafton (2002), “Memory for Goals: An Activation-Based Model,” Cognitive Science, 26 (1), 39–83.
  • An, Soontae, Hyun S. Jin, and Eun H. Park (2014), “Children’s Advertising Literacy for Advergames: Perception of the Game as Advertising,” Journal of Advertising, 43 (1), 63–72.
  • Ariely, Dan (2008), Predictably Irrational. The Hidden Forces That Shape our Decisions, New York: HarperCollins.
  • Arrington, Robert L. (1982), “Advertising and Behavior Control,” Journal of Business Ethics, 1 (1), 3–12.
  • Ash, Tim (2008), Landing Page Optimization: The Definitive Guide to Testing and Tuning for Conversions, Indianapolis, Ind: Wiley.
  • Atalay, A. S., H. O. Bodur, and Dina Rasolofoarison (2012), “Shining in the Center: Central Gaze Cascade Effect on Product Choice,” Journal of Consumer Research, 39 (4), 848–66.
  • Auty, Susan and Charlie Lewis (2004), “Exploring Children’s Choice: The Reminder Effect of Product Placement,” Psychology and Marketing, 21 (9), 697–713.
  • Avery, Rosemary J. and Rosellina Ferraro (2000), “Verisimilitude or Advertising? Brand Appearances on Prime-Time Television,” Journal of Consumer Affairs, 34 (2), 217–44.
  • Babin, Laurie A. and Sheri T. Carder (1996a), “Advertising via the Box Office: Is Product Placement Effective?” Journal of Promotion Management, 3 (1/2), 31–52.
  • Babin, Laurie A. and Sheri T. Carder (1996b), “Viewers’ Recognition of Brands Placed Within a Film,” International Journal of Advertising, 15 (2), 140–51.
  • Bagozzi, Richard P. and Utpal Dholakia (1999), “Goal Setting and Goal Striving in Consumer Behavior,” Journal of Marketing, 63, 19–32.
  • Bahrami, Bahador, David Carmel, Vincent Walsh, Geraint Rees, and Nilli Lavie (2008a), “Spatial Attention Can Modulate Unconscious Orientation Processing,” Perception, 37 (10), 1520–28.
  • ________ (2008b), “Unconscious Orientation Processing Depends on Perceptual Load,” Journal of Vision, 8 (3), 12.1-10.
  • Bahrami, Bahador, Nilli Lavie, and Geraint Rees (2007), “Attentional Load Modulates Responses of Human Primary Visual Cortex to Invisible Stimuli,” Current Biology, 17 (6), 509–13.
  • Baker, Michael J. and Hazel A. Crawford (1995), “Product Placement,” unpublished working paper, Department of Marketing, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, Scotland G1 1XQ.
  • Baker, William E. (1999), “When Can Affective Conditioning and Mere Exposure Directly Influence Brand Choice?” Journal of Advertising, 28 (4), 31–46.
  • Baker, William E., J. W. Hutchinson, Dany Moore, and Prakash Nedungadi (1986), “Brand Familiarity and Advertising: Effects on the Evoked Set and Brand Preference,” Advances in Consumer Research, 13, 637–42.
  • Balasubramanian, Siva K. (1991), “Beyond Advertising and Publicity: The Domain of Hybrid Messages,” Report No. 91-131, Cambridge, MA: Marketing Science Institute.
  • ________ (1994), “Beyond Advertising and Publicity: Hybrid Messages and Public Policy Issues,” Journal of Advertising, 23 (4), 29–46.
  • Balasubramanian, Siva K., James A. Karrh, and Hemant Patwardhan (2006), “Audience Response to Product Placements: An Integrative Framework and Future Research Agenda,” Journal of Advertising, 35 (3), 115–41.
  • Ballew, Charles C. and Alexander Todorov (2007), “Predicting Political Elections from Rapid and Unreflective Face Judgments,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 104 (46), 17948–53.
  • Bandura, Albert (1977), Social Learning Theory, New York: General Learning Press.
  • Banks, Ivana B., Patrick de Pelsmacker, and Shintaro Okazaki, eds. (2015), Advances in Advertising Research (Vol. V), Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden.
  • Bargh, John A. (1990), “Auto-Motives: Preconscious Determinants of Social Interaction,” in Handbook of Motivation and Cognition. Foundations of Social Behavior, ed. Richard M. Sorrentino, New York: The Guilford Press, 93–130.
  • ________ (1997), “The Automaticity of Everyday Life,” in The Automaticity of Everyday Life: Advances in Social Cognition. Advances in Social Cognition, ed. Robert S. Wyer, Mahawah, NJ: Erlbaum, 1–61.
  • ________ (2002), “Losing Consciousness: Automatic Influences on Consumer Judgment, Behavior, and Motivation,” Journal of Consumer Research, 29 (2), 280–85.
  • ________ (2006), “What Have We Been Priming All These Years? On the Development, Mechanisms, and Ecology of Nonconscious Social Behavior,” European Journal of Social Psychology, 36 (2), 147–68.
  • Bargh, John A. and Tanya L. Chartrand (1999), “The Unbearable Automaticity of Being,” American Psychologist, 54 (7), 462–79.
  • Bargh, John A., Mark Chen, and Lara Burrows (1996), “Automaticity of Social Behavior: Direct Effects of Trait Construct and Stereotype-Activation on Action,” Journal of personality and social psychology, 71 (2), 230–44.
  • Bargh, John A. and Melissa J. Ferguson (2000), “Beyond Behaviorism: On the Automaticity of Higher Mental Processes,” Psychological Bulletin, 126 (6), 925–45.
  • Bargh, John A. and Peter M. Gollwitzer (1994), “Environmental Control of Goal-Directed Action: Automatic and Strategic Contingencies Between Situations and Behavior,” Nebraska Symposium on Motivation. Nebraska Symposium on Motivation, 41, 71–124.
  • Bargh, John A., Peter M. Gollwitzer, Annette Lee-Chai, Kimberly Barndollar, and Roman Trötschel (2001), “The Automated Will: Nonconscious Activation and Pursuit of Behavioral Goals,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 81 (6), 1014–27.
  • Bartel, Stefanie (2003a), “Die psychologische Wahrnehmung,” in Farben im Webdesign. X.media.press, ed. Stefanie Bartel, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 30–36.
  • ________ (2003b), Farben im Webdesign, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
  • Bartlett, Frederic C. (1995), Remembering. A Study in Experimental and Social Psychology, Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press.
  • Batra, Rajeev and Michael L. Ray (1986), “Situational Effects of Advertising Repetition: The Moderating Influence of Motivation, Ability, and Opportunity to Respond,” Journal of Consumer Research, 12 (4), 432–45.
  • Beatty, Sharon E. and Del I. Hawkins (1989), “Subliminal Stimulation: Some New Data and Interpretation,” Journal of Advertising, 18 (3), 4–8.
  • Belch, George E. and Michael A. Belch (2009), Advertising and Promotion. An Integrated Marketing Communications Perspective, Boston: McGraw-Hill Irwin.
  • Belk, Russell W. (1975), “Situational Variables and Consumer Behavior,” Journal of Consumer Research, 2 (3), 157–64.
  • Bellafante, Ginia and Jeffrey Ressner (1995), “Prime-Time Tunes,” Time, 146 (18), 93.
  • Bellizzi, Joseph A., Ayn E. Crowley, and Ronald Hasty (1983), “The Effects of Color in Store Design,” Journal of Retailing, 59 (1), 21–47.
  • Bellizzi, Joseph A. and Robert E. Hite (1992), “Environmental Color, Consumer Feelings, and Purchase Likelihood,” Psychology and Marketing, 9 (5), 347–63.
  • Berger, Jonah and Gráinne Fitzsimons (2008), “Dogs on the Street, Pumas on Your Feet: How Cues in the Environment Influence Product Evaluation and Choice,” Journal of Marketing Research, 45 (1), 1–14.
  • Bermeitinger, Christina, Ruben Goelz, Nadine Johr, Manfred Neumann, Ullrich K. Ecker, and Robert Doerr (2009), “The Hidden Persuaders Break into the Tired Brain,” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45 (2), 320–26.
  • Berridge, Kent C. and Piotr Winkielman (2003), “What is an Unconscious Emotion? The Case for Unconscious “Liking”,” Cognition and Emotion, 17 (2), 181–211.
  • Besner, Derek and Glyn W. Humphreys, eds. (1991), Basic Processes in Reading: Visual Word Recognition, Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  • Birnbaum, Michael H. and Barbara A. Mellers (1979), “Stimulus Recognition May Mediate Exposure Effects,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 37 (3), 391–94.
  • Block, Martin P. and Bruce G. Vanden Bergh (1985), “Can You Sell Subliminal Messages to Consumers?” Journal of Advertising, 14 (3), 59–62.
  • Bornstein, R. F. and P. R. D’Agostino (1992), “Stimulus Recognition and the Mere Exposure Effect,” Journal of personality and social psychology, 63 (4), 545–52.
  • Bornstein, Robert F. (1989), “Exposure and Affect: Overview and Meta-Analysis of Research 1968-1987,” Psychological Bulletin, 106, 265–89.
  • ________ (1990), “Subliminal Mere Exposure and Psychodynamic Activation Effects: Implications for the Psychoanalytic Theory of Conscious and Unconscious Mental Processes,” in Empirical Studies of Psychoanalytic Theories, ed. Joseph Masling, Hillsdale, NJ: Analytic Press, 55–88.
  • Bornstein, Robert F., Dean R. Leone, and Donna J. Galley (1987), “The Generalizability of Subliminal Mere Exposure Effects: Influence of Stimuli Perceived without Awareness on Social Behavior,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 53 (6), 1070–79.
  • Bortz, Jürgen and Nicola Döring (2005), Forschungsmethoden und Evaluation fur Human- und Sozialwissenschaftler, Heidelberg: Springer.
  • Boush, David M., Marian Friestad, and Gregory M. Rose (1994), “Adolescent Skepticism toward TV Advertising and Knowledge of Advertiser Tactics,” Journal of Consumer Research, 21 (1), 165–75.
  • Bradley, M. M. and P. J. Lang (1994), “Measuring emotion: the Self-Assessment Manikin and the Semantic Differential,” Journal of behavior therapy and experimental psychiatry, 25 (1), 49–59.
  • Brand, Horst W. (1978), Die Legende von den “geheimen Verführern”. Kritische Analysen zur unterschwelligen Wahrnehmung und Beeinflussung, Weinheim: Beltz.
  • Brannon, Laura A. and Timothy C. Brock (1998), “The Subliminal Persuasion Controversy: Reality, Enduring Fable, and Polonius’s Weasel,” in Persuasion. Psychological Insights and Perspectives, ed. Sharon Shavitt and Timothy C. Brock, Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
  • Braun, Kathryn A. (1999), “Postexperience Advertising Effects on Consumer Memory,” Journal of Consumer Research, 25 (4), 319–34.
  • Braun, Kathryn A., Rhiannon Ellis, and Elizabeth F. Loftus (2002), “Make My Memory: How Advertising Can Change Our Memories of the Past,” Psychology and Marketing, 19 (1), 1–23.
  • Braun-LaTour, Kathryn A., Michael S. LaTour, Jacqueline E. Pickrell, and Elizabeth F. Loftus (2004), “How and When Advertising Can Influence Memory for Consumer Experience,” Journal of Advertising, 33 (4), 7–25.
  • Brée, Joël (1996), “Le Placement de Produit Dans les Films: Une Communication Originale,” Décisions Marketing, 8 (Mai-Août), 65–74.
  • Brennan, Ian and Laurie A. Babin (2004), “Brand Placement Recognition: The Influence of Presentation Mode and Brand Familiarity,” Journal of Promotion Management, 10 (1/2), 185–202.
  • Brennan, Ian, Khalid M. Dubas, and Laurie A. Babin (1999), “The Influence of Product-Placement Type & Exposure Time on Product-Placement Recognition,” International Journal of Advertising, 18 (3), 323–37.
  • Brennan, Stacey, Philip J. Rosenberger, III., and Veronica Hementera (2004), “Product Placements in Movies. An Australian Consumer Perspective on their Ethicality and Acceptability,” Marketing Bulletin, 15, 1–16.
  • Bressoud, Etienne, Jean-Marc Lehu, and Cristel A. Russell (2010), “The Product Well Placed. The Relative Impact of Placement and Audience Characteristics on Placement Recall,” Journal of Advertising Research, 50 (4), 374–85.
  • Brewer, Robin, Lisa Anthony, Quincy Brown, Germaine Irwin, Jaye Nias, and Berthel Tate (2013), “Using Gamification to Motivate Children to Complete Empirical Studies in Lab Environments,” Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Interaction Design and Children (June 24-27), 388–91.
  • Brintazzoli, Gigliola, Eric Soetens, Natacha Deroost, and Eva van den Bussche (2012), “Conscious, but Not Unconscious, Logo Priming of Brands and Related Words,” Consciousness and Cognition, 21 (2), 824–34.
  • Brisoux, Jacques E. and Emmanuel J. Chéron (1990), “Brand Categorization and Product Involvement,” Advances in Consumer Research, 17 (1), 101–09.
  • Brisoux, Jacques E. and Michel Laroche (1980), “A Proposed Consumer Strategy of Simplification for Categorizing Brands,” in Evolving Marketing Thought for 1980, ed. John H. Summey and Ronald D. Taylor, Carbondale, IL: Southern Marketing Association, 112–14.
  • Brown, Juanita J. and Albert R. Wildt (1992), “Consideration Set Measurement,” Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 20 (3), 235–43.
  • Broyles, Sheri J. (2006), “Subliminal Advertising and the Perpetual Popularity of Playing to People’s Paranoia,” Journal of Consumer Affairs, 40 (2), 392–406.
  • Bullock, August (2004), The Secret Sales Pitch: An Overview of Subliminal Advertising, San Jose, CA: Norwich Pub.
  • Bundesverband Digitale Wirtschaft (BVDW) e. V. (2013), “BVDW: 77 Prozent der deutschen Internetnutzer schauen Online-Videos,” http://www.bvdw.org/medien/bvdw-77-prozent-der-deutschen-internetnutzer-schauen-online-videos?media=4598.
  • Büning, Herbert and Götz Trenkler (1994), Nichtparametrische statistische Methoden, Berlin: de Gruyter.
  • Buss, Dale D. (1998), “Making your mark in movies and TV,” Nation’s Business, 86 (12), 28–32.
  • Butler, Laurie T. and Dianne C. Berry (2002), “The Influence of Affective Statements on Performance on Implicit and Explicit Memory Tasks,” Applied Cognitive Psychology, 16 (7), 829–43.
  • Cain, Daylian M., George Loewenstein, and Don A. Moore (2011), “When Sunlight Fails to Disinfect: Understanding the Perverse Effects of Disclosing Conflicts of Interest,” The Journal of Consumer Research, 37 (5), 836–57.
  • Calvert, Gemma, Eamon Fulcher, Geraldine Fulcher, and Pauline Foster (2014), “Using implicit methods to develop an objective measure of media brand engagement,” International Journal of Market Research, 56 (1), 15.
  • Campbell, Margaret (1995), “When Attention-Getting Advertising Tactics Elicit Consumer Inferences of Manipulative Intent: The Importance of Balancing Benefits and Investments,” Journal of Consumer Psychology, 4 (3), 225–54.
  • Campbell, Margaret and Amna Kirmani (2000), “Consumers’ Use of Persuasion Knowledge: The Effects of Accessibility and Cognitive Capacity on Perceptions of an Influence Agent,” Journal of Consumer Research, 27 (1), 69–83.
  • ________ (2008), “I Know What You’re Doing and Why You’re Doing It: The Use of the Persuasion Knowledge Model in Consumer Research,” in Handbook of Consumer Psychology, ed. Curtis P. Haugtvedt, Paul Herr, and Frank R. Kardes, New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 549–74.
  • Carver, Charles S. and Michael F. Scheier (1990), “Origins and Functions of Positive and Negative Affect: A Control-Process View,” Psychological Review, 97 (1), 19–35.
  • Celsi, Richard L. and Jerry C. Olson (1988), “The Role of Involvement in Attention and Comprehension Processes,” Journal of Consumer Research, 15 (2), 210–24.
  • Cesario, Joseph, Jason E. Plaks, and E. T. Higgins (2006), “Automatic Social Behavior as Motivated Preparation to Interact,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 90 (6), 893–910.
  • Chae, Boyoun and JoAndrea Hoegg (2013), “The Future Looks “Right”: Effects of the Horizontal Location of Advertising Images on Product Attitude,” Journal of Consumer Research, 40 (2), 223–38.
  • Chan, F. (2012), “Product placement and its effectiveness: A systematic review and propositions for future research,” The Marketing Review, 12 (1).
  • Chaney, Isabella M., Ku-Ho Lin, and James Chaney (2004), “The Effect of Billboards within the Gaming Environment,” Journal of Interactive Advertising, 5 (1), 54–69.
  • Chang, Susan, Jay Newell, and Charles T. Salmon (2009), “Product Placement in Entertainment Media: Proposing Business Process Models,” International Journal of Advertising, 28 (5), 783–806.
  • Charry, Karine M. (2015), “Product placement and the promotion of healthy food to pre-adolescents: When popular TV series make carrots look cool,” International Journal of Advertising, 33 (3), 599.
  • Chartrand, Tanya L. and John A. Bargh (1996), “Automatic Activation of Impression Formation and Memorization Goals: Nonconscious Goal Priming Reproduces Effects of Explicit Task Instructions,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 464–78.
  • Chartrand, Tanya L., Amy N. Dalton, and Clara M. Cheng (2008), “Consequences of Nonconscious Goal Activation,” in Handbook of Motivation Science, ed. James Y. Shah and Wendi L. Gardner, New York: Guilford Press, 342–55.
  • Chartrand, Tanya L., Amy N. Dalton, and Gavan J. Fitzsimons (2007), “Nonconscious Relationship Reactance: When Significant Others Prime Opposing Goals,” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 43 (5), 719–26.
  • Chartrand, Tanya L., Joel Huber, Baba Shiv, and Robin J. Tanner (2008), “Nonconscious Goals and Consumer Choice,” Journal of Consumer Research, 35 (2), 189–201.
  • Chattopadhyay, Amitava and Joseph W. Alba (1988), “The Situational Importance of Recall and Inference in Consumer Decision Making,” Journal of Consumer Research, 15 (1), 1–12.
  • Chaxel, Anne-Sophie, J. E. Russo, and Catherine Wiggins (2015), “A Goal-Priming Approach to Cognitive Consistency: Applications to Judgment,” Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, n/a.
  • Cheesman, Jim and Philip M. Merikle (1984), “Priming with and without Awareness,” Perception & Psychophysics, 36 (4), 387–95.
  • Chen, Huan and Eric Haley (2014), “Product Placement in Social Games: Consumer Experiences in China,” Journal of Advertising, 43 (3), 286–95.
  • Chen, Tsai (2015), “The persuasive effectiveness of mini-films: Narrative transportation and fantasy proneness,” Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 14 (1), 21–27.
  • Choi, Yung K., Sung m. Lee, and Hairong Li (2013), “Audio and Visual Distractions and Implicit Brand Memory: A Study of Video Game Players,” Journal of Advertising, 42 (2-3), 219–27.
  • Cholinski, Artur (2012), “The Effectiveness of Product Placement: A Field Quasi-Experiment,” International Journal of Marketing Studies, 4 (5), 14–28.
  • Chung, Seh-Woong and Katrin Szymanski (1997), “Effects of Brand Name Exposure on Brand Choices: An Implicit Memory Perspective,” Advances in Consumer Research, 24 (1), 288–94.
  • Coane, Jennifer H., Kayleigh T. Monahan, and Miia-Liisa Termonen (2015), “Hunts, Heinz, and Fries Priming ‘Ketchup’: The Effects of Lexicality on Brand Name-Product Associations and Brand Memory,” Applied Cognitive Psychology, 29 (3), 455–70.
  • Coates, Sarah L., Laurie T. Butler, and Dianne C. Berry (2004), “Implicit Memory: A Prime Example for Brand Consideration and Choice,” Applied Cognitive Psychology, 18 (9), 1195–211.
  • ________ (2006), “Implicit Memory and Consumer Choice: The Mediating Role of Brand Familiarity,” Applied Cognitive Psychology, 20 (8), 1101–16.
  • Cohen, Jacob (1988), Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • Coker, Kesha K., Suzanne A. Altobello, and Siva K. Balasubramanian (2013), “Message exposure with friends: The role of social context on attitudes toward prominently placed brands,” Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 12 (2), 102–11.
  • Cooper, Joel and Grant Cooper (2002), “Subliminal Motivation: A Story Revisited,” Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 32 (11), 2213–27.
  • Cornwell, T. B. (2008), “State of Art and Science in Sponsorship-Linked Marketing,” Journal of Advertising, 37 (3), 41–55.
  • Cornwell, T. B. and Isabelle Maignan (1998), “An International Review of Sponsorship Research,” Journal of Advertising, 27 (1), 1–21.
  • Costley, Carolyn L. and Merrie Brucks (1992), “Selective Recall and Information Use in Consumer Preferences,” Journal of Consumer Research, 18 (4), 464–74.
  • Cowley, Elizabeth and Chris Barron (2008), “When Product Placement Goes Wrong: The Effects of Program Liking and Placement Prominence,” Journal of Advertising, 37 (1), 89–98.
  • Craig-Lees, Margaret, Gary Gregory, and Teresa Davis, eds. (2007), Borderless Consumption: Asia Pacific Advances in Consumer Research Volume 7, Duluth, MN: Association of Consumer Research.
  • Crowley, Ayn E. (1993), “The Two-Dimensional Impact of Color on Shopping,” Marketing Letters, 4 (1), 59–69.
  • Crowley, Ayn E. and John H. Williams (1991), “An Information Theoretic Approach to Understanding the Consideration Set/Awareness Set Proportion,” Advances in Consumer Research, 18 (1), 780–87.
  • Custers, Ruud and Henk Aarts (2005), “Positive Affect as Implicit Motivator: On the Nonconscious Operation of Behavioral Goals,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 89 (2), 129–42.
  • ________ (2007), “Goal-Discrepant Situations Prime Goal-Directed Actions if Goals are Temporarily or Chronically Accessible,” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 33 (5), 623–33.
  • Damasio, Antonio R. (1994), Descartes’ Error: Emotion, Reason, and the Human Brain, New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons.
  • D’Amicis, Francesca, Petra Höfer, and Freddie Röckenhaus (2012a), Die Macht des Unbewussten, 1.
  • D’Amicis, Francesca, Petra Höfer, and Freddie Röckenhaus (2012b), Die Macht des Unbewussten, 2.
  • Darke, Peter R. and Robin J. Ritchie (2007), “The Defensive Consumer: Advertising Deception, Defensive Processing, and Distrust,” Journal of Marketing Research, 44 (1), 114–27.
  • D’Astous, Alain and Pierre Bitz (1995), “Consumer Evaluations of Sponsorship Programmes,” European Journal of Marketing, 29 (12), 6–22.
  • D’Astous, Alain and Francis Chartier (2000), “A Study of Factors Affecting Consumer Evaluations and Memory of Product Placements in Movies,” Journal of Current Issues & Research in Advertising, 22 (2), 31–40.
  • D’Astous, Alain and Nathalie Séguin (1999), “Consumer Reactions to Product Placement Strategies in Television Sponsorship,” European Journal of Marketing, 33 (9), 896–910.
  • De Fleur, Melvin L. and Robert M. Petranoff (1959), “A Televised Test of Subliminal Persuasion,” The Public Opinion Quarterly, 23 (2), 168–80.
  • De Pelsmacker, Patrick, Maggie Geuens, and Pascal Anckaert (2002), “Media Context and Advertising Effectiveness: The Role of Context Appreciation and Context/Ad Similarity,” Journal of Advertising, 31 (2), 49–61.
  • De Pelsmacker, Patrick, Maggie Geuens, and Joeri van den Bergh (2007), Marketing Communications: A European Perspective, Harlow: Financial Times Prentice Hall.
  • Debner, James A. and Larry L. Jacoby (1994), “Unconscious Perception: Attention, Awareness, and Control,” Journal of experimental psychology. Learning, memory, and cognition, 20 (2), 304–17.
  • Deecke, Lüder (2012), “There Are Conscious and Unconscious Agendas in the Brain and Both Are Important—Our Will Can Be Conscious as Well as Unconscious,” Brain Sciences, 2 (3), 405–20.
  • Delattre, Eric and Ana Colovic (2009a), “Memory and perception of brand mentions and placement of brands in songs,” International Journal of Advertising, 28 (5), 0.
  • ________ (2009b), “Memory and Perception of Brand Mentions and Placement of Brands in Songs,” International Journal of Advertising, 28 (5), 807–42.
  • DeLorme, Denise E. and Leonard N. Reid (1999), “Moviegoers’ Experiences and Interpretations of Brands in Films Revisited,” Journal of Advertising, 28 (2), 71–95.
  • Deng, Xiaoyan and Barbara E. Kahn (2009), “Is your product on the right side? The “location effect” on perceived product heaviness and package evaluation,” Journal of marketing research : JMR, 46 (6), 725–38.
  • Dens, Nathalie, Patrick De Pelsmacker, Marijke Wouters, and Nathalia Purnawirawan (2012), “Do you like What you Recognize?” Journal of Advertising, 41 (3), 35–54.
  • Deterding, Sebastian, Dan Dixon, Rilla Khaled, and Lennart Nacke (2011), “From Game Design Elements to Gamefulness: Defining Gamification,” Proceedings of the 15th International Academic MindTrek Conference: Envisioning Future Media Environments (September 28-30), 9–15.
  • Devine, Patricia G. (1989), “Stereotypes and Prejudice: Their Automatic and Controlled Components,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56 (1), 5–18.
  • Dijksterhuis, Ap, Henk Aarts, John A. Bargh, and Ad van Knippenberg (2000), “On the Relation between Associative Strength and Automatic Behavior,” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 36 (5), 531–44.
  • Dijksterhuis, Ap, Henk Aarts, and Pamela K. Smith (2006), “The Power of the Subliminal: Subliminal Perception and Possible Applications,” in The New Unconscious, ed. Ran R. Hassin, James S. Uleman, and John A. Bargh, New York, NY: Oxford University Press, 77–106.
  • Dijksterhuis, Ap, Maarten W. Bos, Loran F. Nordgren, and Rick B. van Baaren (2006), “On Making the Right Choice: The Deliberation-Without-Attention Effect,” Science, 311 (5763), 1005–07.
  • Dijksterhuis, Ap, Pamela K. Smith, Rick B. van Baaren, and Daniël H. Wigboldus (2005), “The Unconscious Consumer: Effects of Environment on Consumer Behavior,” Journal of Consumer Psychology, 15 (3), 193–202.
  • Dijksterhuis, Ap and Ad van Knippenberg (1998), “The Relation Between Perception and Behavior, or How to Win a Game of Trivial Pursuit,” Journal of personality and social psychology, 74 (4), 865–77.
  • Dimofte, Claudiu V. and Richard F. Yalch (2007), “Consumer Response to Polysemous Brand Slogans,” Journal of Consumer Research, 33 (4), 515–22.
  • Dodson, Chad S. and Daniel L. Schacter (2001), “”If I Had Said It I Would Have Remembered It”: Reducing False Memories with a Distinctiveness Heuristic,” Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 8 (1), 155–61.
  • Donohue, Thomas R., Lucy L. Henke, and William A. Donohue (1980), “Do Kids Know What TV Commercials Intend?” Journal of Advertising Research, 20, 51–56.
  • Dortch, Shannon (1996), “Going to the Movies,” American Demographics, 18 (12), 4–7.
  • Dr. Anna Fenko and Willemijn Drost (2014), “A study in pink: What determines the success of gender-specific advertising?” in 13th International Conferences on Research in Advertising (ICORIA), Amsterdam, 26-28 June 2014.
  • Driver, Jon and Patrick Vuilleumier (2001), “Perceptual Awareness and Its Loss in Unilateral Neglect and Extinction,” Cognition, 79 (1-2), 39–88.
  • Duke, Charles R. (1995), “Exploratory Comparisons of Alternative Memory Measures for Brand Name,” Psychology and Marketing, 12 (1), 19–36.
  • Duke, Charles R. and Les Carlson (1994), “Applying Implicit Memory Measures: Word Fragment Completion in Advertising Tests,” Journal of Current Issues & Research in Advertising, 16 (2), 29–39.
  • Dunn, Lea and JoAndrea Hoegg (2014), “The Impact of Fear on Emotional Brand Attachment,” Journal of Consumer Research, 41 (1), 152–68.
  • Eisenberg, Bryan, Jeffrey Eisenberg, and Lisa T. Davis (2006), Call to Action: Secret Formulas to Improve Online Results, Nashville, TN: Nelson.
  • Eisend, Martin (2009), “A Cross-Cultural Generalizability Study of Consumers’ Acceptance of Product Placements in Movies,” Journal of Current Issues & Research in Advertising, 31 (1), 15–25.
  • Eitam, Baruch, Ran R. Hassin, and Yaacov Schul (2008), “Nonconscious Goal Pursuit in Novel Environments: The Case of Implicit Learning,” Psychological science, 19 (3), 261–67.
  • Ekman, Paul (2005), What the Face Reveals: Basic and Applied Studies of Spontaneous Expression Using the Facial Action Coding System (FACS), New York: Oxford University Press.
  • Elger, Christian E., Angela D. Friederici, Christof Koch, Heiko Luhmann, Christoph von der Malsburg, Randolf Menzel, Hannah Monyer, Frank Rösler, Gerhard Roth, Henning Scheich, and Wolf Singer (2004), “Das Manifest. Elf führende Neurowissenschaftler über Gegenwart und Zukunft der Hirnforschung,” Gehirn & Geist (6), 30–37.
  • Engel, James F., Roger D. Blackwell, and Paul W. Miniard (1993), Consumer Behavior, Fort Worth: Dryden.
  • Epley, Nicholas and Thomas Gilovich (1999), “Just Going Along: Nonconscious Priming and Conformity to Social Pressure,” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 35 (6), 578–89.
  • Eriksen, Charles W. (1960), “Discrimination and Learning without Awareness: A Methodological Survey and Evaluation,” Psychological Review, 67 (5), 279–300.
  • Eui Jun Jeong, Corey J. Bohil, and Frank A. Biocca (2011), “Brand Logo Placements in Violent Games: Effects of Violent Cues on Memory and Attitude through Arousal and Presence,” Journal of Advertising, 40 (3), 59–72.
  • Fang, Xiang, Surendra N. Singh, and Rohini Ahluwalia (2007), “An Examination of Different Explanations for the Mere Exposure Effect,” Journal of Consumer Research, 34 (1), 97–103.
  • Ferguson, Nakeisha S. and Janée N. Burkhalter (2014), “Yo, DJ, That’s My Brand: An Examination of Consumer Response to Brand Placements in Hip-Hop Music,” Journal of Advertising, 44 (1), 47–57.
  • Fernbach, Philip M., Steven A. Sloman, Robert St. Louis, and Julia N. Shube (2013), “Explanation Fiends and Foes: How Mechanistic Detail Determines Understanding and Preference,” Journal of Consumer Research, 39 (5), 1115–31.
  • Ferraro, Rosellina and Rosemary J. Avery (2000), “Brand Appearances on Prime-Time Television,” Journal of Current Issues & Research in Advertising, 22 (2), 1–15.
  • Ferraro, Rosellina, James R. Bettman, and Tanya L. Chartrand (2009), “The Power of Strangers: The Effect of Incidental Consumer Brand Encounters on Brand Choice,” Journal of Consumer Research, 35 (5), 729–41.
  • Finn, Adam (1988), “Print Ad Recognition Readership Scores: An Information Processing Perspective,” Journal of Marketing Research, 25 (2), 168–77.
  • Fitzsimons, Gráinne M. and John A. Bargh (2003), “Thinking of You: Nonconscious Pursuit of Interpersonal Goals Associated with Relationship Partners,” Journal of personality and social psychology, 84 (1), 148–64.
  • Flechtner, Hans-Joachim (1979), Das Gedächtnis. Ein neues psychophysisches Konzept (Memoria und Mneme. Band III), Stuttgart: Hirzel.
  • Fleck, Nathalie D. and Pascale Quester (2007), “Birds of a feather flock together…definition, role and measure of congruence: An application to sponsorship,” Psychology and Marketing, 24 (11), 975–1000.
  • Florack, Arnd and Simon Ineichen (2008), “Unbemerkte Beeinflussung von Markenpräferenzen: Die Wiederauferstehung eines Mythos?” Wirtschaftspsychologie, 10 (4), 53–60.
  • Forehand, Mark R. and Andrew Perkins (2005), “Implicit Assimilation and Explicit Contrast: A Set/Reset Model of Response to Celebrity Voice‐Overs,” Journal of Consumer Research, 32 (3), 435–41.
  • Förster, Jens, Nira Liberman, and Ronald S. Friedman (2007), “Seven Principles of Goal Activation: A Systematic Approach to Distinguishing Goal Priming from Priming of Non-Goal Constructs,” Personality and Social Psychology Review, 11 (3), 211–33.
  • Fransen, Marieke L. and Bob M. Fennis (2014), “Comparing the Impact of Explicit and Implicit Resistance Induction Strategies on Message Persuasiveness,” Journal of Communication, 64 (5), 915–34.
  • Friestad, Marian and Peter Wright (1994), “The Persuasion Knowledge Model: How People Cope with Persuasion Attempts,” Journal of Consumer Research, 21 (1), 1–31.
  • ________ (1995), “Persuasion Knowledge: Lay People’s and Researchers’ Beliefs about the Psychology of Advertising,” Journal of Consumer Research, 22 (1), 62–74.
  • G+J Media Research Services (2014), “Dos and Don’ts beim Native Advertising,” http://www.gujmedia.de/fileadmin/redaktion/Online/Native/Dos_and_Donts_Native_Advertising_FINAL_PDF.pdf.
  • Gabrieli, John D. E., William Milberg, Margaret M. Keane, and Suzanne Corkin (1990), “Intact Priming of Patterns Despite Impaired Memory,” Neuropsychologia, 28 (5), 417–27.
  • Gardner, Meryl P., Andrew A. Mitchell, and J. E. Russo (1985), “Low Involvement Strategies for Processing Advertisements,” Journal of Advertising, 14 (2), 4–56.
  • George, Stephen G. and Luther B. Jennings (1975), “Effect of Subliminal Stimuli on Consumer Behavior: Negative Evidence,” Perceptual and motor skills, 41 (3), 847–54.
  • Gibson, Bryan, Christopher Redker, and Ian Zimmerman (2014), “Conscious and nonconscious effects of product placement: Brand recall and active persuasion knowledge affect brand attitudes and brand self-identification differently,” Psychology of Popular Media Culture, 3 (1), 19–37.
  • Gibson, Bryan and Katherine Zielaskowski (2013), “Subliminal priming of winning images prompts increased betting in slot machine play,” Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 43 (1), 106–15.
  • Gibson, Lawrence D. (1983), “If the Question is Copy Testing, the Answer is … ‘Not Recall’,” Journal of Advertising Research, 23 (1), 39–46.
  • Gillespie, Brian, Jeff Joireman, and Darrel D. Muehling (2012), “The Moderating Effect of Ego Depletion on Viewer Brand Recognition and Brand Attitudes Following Exposure to Subtle Versus Blatant Product Placements in Television Programs,” Journal of Advertising, 41 (2), 55–66.
  • Glaser, Jack and Mahzarin R. Banaji (1999), “When Fair is Foul and Foul is Fair: Reverse Priming in Automatic Evaluation,” Journal of personality and social psychology, 77 (4), 669–87.
  • Glass, Zachary (2007), “The Effectiveness of Product Placment in Video Games,” Journal of Interactive Advertising, 8 (1), 23–32.
  • Gorn, Gerald J., Yuwei Jiang, and Gita V. Johar (2008), “Babyfaces, Trait Inferences, and Company Evaluations in a Public Relations Crisis,” Journal of Consumer Research, 35 (1), 36–49.
  • Gould, Stephen J. and Pola B. Gupta (2006), “”Come on down”: How Consumers View Game Shows and the Products Placed in Them,” Journal of Advertising, 35 (1), 65–81.
  • Gould, Stephen J., Pola B. Gupta, and Sonja Grabner-Kräuter (2000), “Product Placements in Movies: A Cross-Cultural Analysis of Austrian, French and American Consumers’ Attitudes toward This Emerging, International Promotional Medium,” Journal of Advertising, 29 (4), 41–58.
  • Graf, Peter and George Mandler (1984), “Activation Makes Words More Accessible, but Not Necessarily More Retrievable,” Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior, 23 (5), 553–68.
  • Graf, Peter and Michael E. J. Masson (1993), Implicit Memory: New Directions in Cognition, Development, and Neuropsychology, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • Gray, Peter (1999), Psychology: W.H. Freeman & Company.
  • Greenwald, Anthony G. (1992), “New Look 3: Reclaiming Unconscious Cognition,” American Psychologist, 47, 766–79.
  • Greenwald, Anthony G. and Clark Leavitt (1984), “Audience Involvement in Advertising: Four Levels,” Journal of Consumer Research, 11 (1), 581–92.
  • Greenwald, Anthony G., Debbie E. McGhee, and Jordan L. K. Schwartz (1998), “Measuring Individual Differences in Implicit Cognition: The Implicit Association Test,” Journal of personality and social psychology, 74 (6), 1464–80.
  • Greenwald, Anthony G., Eric R. Spangenberg, Anthony R. Pratkanis, and Jay Eskenazi (1991), “Double-Blind Tests of Subliminal Self-Help Audiotapes,” Psychological Science, 2 (2), 119–22.
  • Gregorio, Federico de and Yongjun Sung (2010), “Understanding Attitudes Toward and Behaviors in Response to Product Placement,” Journal of Advertising, 39 (1), 83–96.
  • Grigorovici, Dan M. and Corina D. Constantin (2004), “Experiencing Interactive Advertising beyond Rich Media: Impacts of Ad Type and Presence on Brand Effectiveness in 3D Gaming Immersive Virtual Environments,” Journal of Interactive Advertising, 5 (1), 22–36.
  • Grimes, Anthony and Philip J. Kitchen (2007), “Researching Mere Exposure Effects to Advertising: Theoretical Foundations and Methodological Implications,” International Journal of Market Research, 49 (2), 191–219.
  • Grohs, Reinhard, Udo M. Wagner, and Sabine Vsetecka (2004), “Assessing the Effectiveness of Sport Sponsorships – An Empirical Examination,” Schmalenbach Business Review, 56 (2), 119–38.
  • Gunter, Barrie, Caroline Oates, and Mark Blades (2005), Advertising to Children on TV: Content, Impact, and Regulation, Mahwah, N.J: Lawrence Erlbaum.
  • Gupta, Pola B. and Siva K. Balasubramanian (2000), “Viewers’ Evaluations of Product Placements in Movies: Public Policy Issues and Managerial Implications,” Journal of Current Issues & Research in Advertising (CTC Press), 22 (2), 41–52.
  • Gupta, Pola B. and Stephen J. Gould (1997), “Consumers’ Perceptions of the Ethics and Acceptability of Product Placements in Movies: Product Category and Individual Differences,” Journal of Current Issues & Research in Advertising (CTC Press), 19 (1), 38–50.
  • ________ (2007), “Recall of Products Placed as Prizes versus Commercials in Game Shows,” Journal of Current Issues & Research in Advertising (CTC Press), 29 (1), 43–53.
  • Gupta, Pola B. and Kenneth R. Lord (1998), “Product Placement in Movies: The Effect of Prominence and Mode on Audience Recall,” Journal of Current Issues & Research in Advertising, 20 (1), 47–59.
  • Hackley, Christopher (2003), “IMC and Hollywood – What Brand Managers Need to Know,” Admap (The international magazine of advertising knowledge), 38 (10), 44–47.
  • Hackley, Christopher and Rungpaka A. Tiwsakul (2006), “Entertainment Marketing and Experiential Consumption,” Journal of Marketing Communications, 12 (1), 63–75.
  • Hackley, Christopher, Rungpaka A. Tiwsakul, and Lutz Preuss (2008), “An Ethical Evaluation of Product Placement: A Deceptive Practice?” Business Ethics: A European Review, 17 (2), 109–20.
  • Hall, Bruce F. (2004), “On Measuring the Power of Communications,” Journal of Advertising Research, 44 (2), 181–87.
  • Hamilton, Rebecca W. (2003), “Why Do People Suggest What They Do Not Want? Using Context Effects to Influence Others’ Choices,” Journal of Consumer Research, 29 (4), 492–506.
  • Hang, Haiming (2012), “The implicit influence of bimodal brand placement on children: information integration or information interference?” International Journal of Advertising, 31 (3), 465.
  • Hang, Haming (2014), “Brand-Placement Effectiveness and Competitive Interference in Entertainment Media,” Journal of Advertising Research, 54 (2), 192.
  • Harris, J. L., M. Pierce, and J. A. Bargh (2014), “Priming effect of antismoking PSAs on smoking behaviour: a pilot study,” Tobacco Control, 23 (4), 285–90.
  • Hassin, Ran R., James S. Uleman, and John A. Bargh, eds. (2006), The New Unconscious, New York, NY: Oxford University Press.
  • Haugtvedt, Curtis P., Paul Herr, and Frank R. Kardes, eds. (2008), Handbook of Consumer Psychology, New York: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  • Hauser, John R. and Birger Wernerfelt (1990), “An Evaluation Cost Model of Consideration Sets,” Journal of Consumer Research, 16 (4), 393–408.
  • Hawkins, Del (1970), “The Effects of Subliminal Stimulation on Drive Level and Brand Preference,” Journal of Marketing Research, 7 (3), 322–26.
  • Haynes, John-Dylan and Geraint Rees (2005), “Predicting the Orientation of Invisible Stimuli from Activity in Human Primary Visual Cortex,” Nature neuroscience, 8 (5), 686–91.
  • He, Yi, Qimei Chen, Leona Tam, and Ruby P. Lee (2014), “Managing sub-branding affect transfer: the role of consideration set size and brand loyalty,” Marketing Letters.
  • Heath, Robert (2000), “Low Involvement Processing – A New Model of Brand Communication,” International Journal of Advertising, 19 (3), 287–98.
  • Heath, Timothy B. and Subimal Chatterjee (1991), “How Entrants Affect Multiple Brands: A Dual Attraction Mechanism,” Advances in Consumer Research, 18 (1), 768–72.
  • Heine, L. (1936), “Die Kreuzung der Nervenbahnen und die bilaterale Symmetrie,” Ophthalmologica, 88 (1), 7–14.
  • Hernandez, Monica D., Sindy Chapa, Michael S. Minor, Cecilia Maldonado, and Fernando Barranzuela (2004), “Hispanic Attitudes toward Advergames: A Proposed Model of their Antecedents,” Journal of Interactive Advertising, 5 (1), 74–83.
  • Herr, Paul M. (1989), “Priming Price: Prior Knowledge and Context Effects,” Journal of Consumer Research, 16 (1), 67–75.
  • Herrewijn, Laura and Karolien Poels (2013), “Putting brands into play: how game difficulty and player experiences influence the effectiveness of in-game advertising,” International Journal of Advertising, 32 (1), 17.
  • Herrmann, Jean-Luc, Björn Walliser, and Mathieu Kacha (2011), “Consumer Consideration of Sponsor Brands They Do Not Remember: Taking a Wider Look at the Memorisation Effects of Sponsorship,” International Journal of Advertising, 30 (2), 259–81.
  • Higgins, E. T. (1996), “Knowledge Activation: Accessibility, Applicability, and Salience,” in Social Psychology. Handbook of Basic Principles, ed. Arie W. Kruglanski and Edward T. Higgins, New York, NY: Guilford Press, 133–68.
  • Holden, Stephen J. S. and Marc Vanhuele (1999), “Know the Name, Forget the Exposure: Brand Familiarity versus Memory of Exposure Context,” Psychology and Marketing, 16 (6), 479–96.
  • Homburg, Christian (2012), Marketingmanagement: Strategie, Instrumente, Umsetzung, Unternehmensfuhrung, Wiesbaden: Springer Gabler.
  • Homer, Pamela M. (2009), “Product Placements: The Impact of Placement Type and Repetition on Attitude,” Journal of Advertising, 38 (3), 21–32.
  • Howard, John A. and Jagdish N. Sheth (1969), The Theory of Buyer Behavior, New York: Wiley.
  • Hoyer, Wayne D. and Steven P. Brown (1990), “Effects of Brand Awareness on Choice for a Common, Repeat-Purchase Product,” Journal of Consumer Research, 17 (2), 141–48.
  • Hudson, Simon and David Hudson (2006), “Branded Entertainment: A New Advertising Technique or Product Placement in Disguise?” Journal of Marketing Management, 22 (5-6), 489–504.
  • Jacoby, Larry L. and Mark Dallas (1981), “On the Relationship Between Autobiographical Memory and Perceptual Learning,” Journal of experimental psychology. General, 110 (3), 306–40.
  • Jacoby, Larry L. and Dawn Witherspoon (1982), “Remembering without Awareness,” Canadian Journal of Psychology/Revue canadienne de psychologie, 36 (2), 300–24.
  • Janiszewski, Chris (1988), “Preconscious Processing Effects: The Independence of Attitude Formation and Conscious Thought,” Journal of Consumer Research, 15 (2), 199–209.
  • ________ (1990), “The Influence of Print Advertisement Organization on Affect toward a Brand Name,” Journal of Consumer Research, 17 (1), 53–65.
  • ________ (1993), “Preattentive Mere Exposure Effects,” Journal of Consumer Research, 20 (3), 376–92.
  • Janiszewski, Chris and Tom Meyvis (2001), “Effects of Brand Logo Complexity, Repetition, and Spacing on Processing Fluency and Judgment,” Journal of Consumer Research, 28 (1), 18–32.
  • Janiszewski, Chris and Luk Warlop (1993), “The Influence of Classical Conditioning Procedures on Subsequent Attention to the Conditioned Brand,” Journal of Consumer Research, 20 (2), 171–89.
  • Janiszewski, Chris and Robert S. Wyer (2014), “Content and process priming: A review,” Journal of Consumer Psychology, 24 (1), 96–118.
  • Jia, Jayson S., Baba Shiv, and Sanjay Rao (2014), “The Product-Agnosia Effect: How More Visual Impressions Affect Product Distinctiveness in Comparative Choice,” Journal of Consumer Research, 41 (2), 342–60.
  • Jin, ChangHyun and Jorge Villegas (2007), “The effect of the placement of the product in film: Consumers’ emotional responses to humorous stimuli and prior brand evaluation,” Journal of Targeting, Measurement and Analysis for Marketing, 15 (4), 244–55.
  • Johar, Gita V. (1995), “Consumer Involvement and Deception from Implied Advertising Claims,” Journal of Marketing Research, 32 (3), 267–79.
  • Johnson, Marcia K., Mary A. Foley, Aurora G. Suengas, and Carol L. Raye (1988), “Phenomenal Characteristics of Memories for Perceived and Imagined Autobiographical Events,” Journal of experimental psychology. General, 117 (4), 371–76.
  • Johnson, Michael D. and Donald R. Lehmann (1997), “Consumer Experience and Consideration Sets For Brands and Product Categories,” Advances in Consumer Research, 24, 295–300.
  • Johnstone, Emma and Christopher A. Dodd (2000), “Placements as Mediators of Brand Salience within a UK Cinema Audience,” Journal of Marketing Communications, 6 (3), 141–58.
  • Jusufovic-Karisik, Vildan (2014), “20 Years of Research on Product Placement in Movie, Television and Video Game Media,” Journal of Economic and Social Studies, 4 (2), 98–108.
  • Kahn, Barbara E. (1995), “Consumer Variety-Seeking among Goods and Services,” Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 2 (3), 139–48.
  • Kahneman, Daniel (1973), Attention and Effort, Englewood Cliffs, N.J: Prentice-Hall.
  • Kahneman, Daniel, Jack L. Knetsch, and Richard H. Thaler (1990), “Experimental Tests of the Endowment Effect and the Coase Theorem,” Journal of Political Economy, 98 (6), 1352.
  • Kamleitner, Bernadette and Abul Khair Jyote (2014), “How using versus showing interaction between characters and products boosts product placement effectiveness,” International Journal of Advertising, 32 (4), 633.
  • Kanai, Ryota, Naotsugu Tsuchiya, and Frans A. Verstraten (2006), “The Scope and Limits of Top-Down Attention in Unconscious Visual Processing,” Current Biology, 16 (23), 2332–36.
  • Kardes, Frank R. (1986), “Effects of Initial Product Judgments on Subsequent Memory-Based Judgments,” Journal of Consumer Research, 13 (1), 1–11.
  • Karremans, Johan C., Wolfgang Stroebe, and Jasper Claus (2006), “Beyond Vicary’s Fantasies: The Impact of Subliminal Priming and Brand Choice,” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 42 (6), 792–98.
  • Karrh, James A. (1994), “Effects of Brand Placements in Motion Pictures,” in The Proceedings of the 1994 Conference of the American Academy of Advertising, ed. Karen W. King, Athens, GA: Henry W. Grady College of Journalism and Mass Communications, 90–96.
  • ________ (1998), “Brand Placement: A Review,” Journal of Current Issues & Research in Advertising, 20 (2), 31–49.
  • Karrh, James A., Katherine T. Frith, and Coy Callison (2001), “Audience Attitudes towards Brand (Product) Placement: Singapore and the United States,” International Journal of Advertising, 20 (1), 3–24.
  • Karrh, James A., Kathy B. McKee, and Carol J. Pardun (2003), “Practitioners’ Evolving Views on Product Placement Effectiveness,” Journal of Advertising Research, 43 (2), 138–49.
  • Kay, Aaron C. and Lee Ross (2003), “The Perceptual Push: The Interplay of Implicit Cues and Explicit Situational Construals on Behavioral Intentions in the Prisoner’s Dilemma,” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 39, 634–43.
  • Keller, Kevin L. (1987), “Memory Factors in Advertising: The Effect of Advertising Retrieval Cues on Brand Evaluations,” Journal of Consumer Research, 14 (3), 316–33.
  • Keller, Kevin L. and David A. Aaker (1992), “The Effects of Sequential Introduction of Brand Extensions,” Journal of Marketing Research, 29 (1), 35–50.
  • Kelly, Steven J. (1979), “Subliminal Embeds in Print Advertising: A Challenge to Advertising Ethics,” Journal of Advertising, 8 (3), 20–24.
  • Key, Wilson B. (1974), Subliminal Seduction: Signet.
  • Khalbous, Slim, Donata Vianelli, Tomasz Domanski, Christian Dianoux, and Meriem Maazoul (2013), “Attitudes toward Product Placement: A Cross-Cultural Analysis in Tunisia, France, Italy, and Poland,” International Journal of Marketing Studies, 5 (2).
  • Kido, Kaede and Shogo Makioka (2014), “Priming effects under continuous flash suppression: An examination on subliminal bottom-up processing,” Japanese Psychological Research, 56 (2), 126–38.
  • Kihlstrom, John F. (1987), “The Cognitive Unconscious,” Science, 237 (4821), 1445–52.
  • Kim, John, Jeen-Su Lim, and Mukesh Bhargava (1998), “The Role of Affect in Attitude Formation: A Classical Conditioning Approach,” Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 26 (2), 143–52.
  • King, Karen W., ed. (1994), The Proceedings of the 1994 Conference of the American Academy of Advertising, Athens, GA: Henry W. Grady College of Journalism and Mass Communications.
  • King, Maryon F. and Gordon C. Bruner (2000), “Social Desirability Bias: A Neglected Aspect of Validity Testing,” Psychology and Marketing, 17 (2), 79–103.
  • Kirmani, Amna and Margaret C. Campbell (2004), “Goal Seeker and Persuasion Sentry: How Consumer Targets Respond to Interpersonal Marketing Persuasion,” Journal of Consumer Research, 31 (3), 573–82.
  • KISSmetrics.com (2010), “How Do Colors Affect Purchases?” http://blog.kissmetrics.com/color-psychology/.
  • Klass, Bertrand (1958), “The Ghost of Subliminal Advertising,” Journal of Marketing, 23 (2), 146–50.
  • Klauer, Karl C. and Jochen Musch (2001), “Does Sunshine Prime Loyal? Affective Priming in the Naming Task,” The Quarterly journal of experimental psychology. A, Human experimental psychology, 54 (3), 727–51.
  • Klenosky, David B. and Arno J. Rethans (1988), “The Formation of Consumer Choice Sets: A Longitudinal Investigation at the Product Class Level,” Advances in Consumer Research, 15 (1), 13–18.
  • Klinger, Mark R. and Anthony G. Greenwald (1994), “Preferences Need No Inferences?: The Cognitive Basis of Unconscious Mere Exposure Effects,” in The Heart’s Eye: Emotional Influences in Perception and Attention, ed. Paula M. Niedenthal and Shinobu Kitayama, San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 67–85.
  • Knutson, Brian, G. E. Wimmer, Camelia M. Kuhnen, and Piotr Winkielman (2008), “Nucleus Accumbens Activation Mediates the Influence of Reward Cues on Financial Risk Taking,” NeuroReport, 19 (5), 509–13.
  • Koch, Christof and Naotsugu Tsuchiya (2007), “Attention and Consciousness: Two Distinct Brain Processes,” Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 11 (1), 16–22.
  • Kornhuber, Hans H. and Lüder Deecke (2012), The Will and Its Brain: An Appraisal of Reasoned Free Will: University Press of America.
  • Kozary, Benjamin J. and Stacey M. Baxter (2010), “The Influence of Product Placement Prominence on Consumer Attitudes and Intentions: A Theoretical Framework,” conference paper, ANZMAC 2010, Australian and New Zealand Marketing Academy Conference 2010 – ‘Doing More with Less’, Canterbury, NZ.
  • Kray, Laura J., Leigh Thompson, and Adam Galinsky (2001), “Battle of the Sexes: Gender Stereotype Confirmation and Reactance in Negotiations,” Journal of personality and social psychology, 80 (6), 942–58.
  • Krishnan, H. S. and Dipankar Chakravarti (1999), “Memory Measures for Pretesting Advertisements: An Integrative Conceptual Framework and a Diagnostic Template,” Journal of Consumer Psychology, 8 (1), 1–38.
  • Krishnan, H. S. and Stewart Shapiro (1996), “Comparing Implicit and Explicit Memory for Brand Names From Advertisements,” Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 2 (2), 147–63.
  • Krishnan, H. S. and Charles V. Trappey (1999), “Nonconscious Memory Processes in Marketing: A Historical Perspective and Future Directions,” Psychology and Marketing, 16 (6), 451–57.
  • Kruglanski, Arie W. and Edward T. Higgins, eds. (1996), Social Psychology. Handbook of Basic Principles, New York, NY: Guilford Press.
  • Krugman, Herbert E. (1977), “Memory without Recall, Exposure without Perception,” Journal of Advertising Research, 17 (4), 7–12.
  • ________ (1986), “Low Recall and High Recognition of Advertising,” Journal of Advertising Research, 26 (1), 79–86.
  • Kuhn, Kerri Louise, Nigel Kenneth Pope, and Kevin E. Voges (2007), “Exploring Product Placement in Video Games. An Investigation of Recall Effects,” conference paper, ANZMAC 2007, Australian and New Zealand Marketing Academy Conference 2007 – ‘Reputation, Responsibility & Relevance’, Dunedin, NZ.
  • Kureshi, Sonal and Vandana Sood (2010), “A Review of Placement Literature: Conceptual and Managerial Implications,” Journal of Marketing Management, 9 (1/2), 23–39.
  • ________ (2012), “In-film placements of product brands in Hindi films. Practices and preferences,” South Asian journal of management : SAJM, 19 (2), 37–59.
  • Kürschner, Jens (2013), “Unterschwelliges Product Placement in Filmen: Eine empirische Studie,” unveröffentlichte Masterarbeit, Fachbereich Marketing, Universität Bayreuth, Bayreuth, Bayern 95440.
  • Küst, Jutta (1998), “Implizite Gedächtnisleistungen bei Kindern. Experimentelle Untersuchung zur Altersinvarianz,” unveröffentlichte Dissertation, Fachbereich Psychologie, Universität Konstanz, Konstanz, Baden-Württemberg 78462.
  • La Barbera, Priscilla A. and Joel D. Tucciarone (1995), “GSR Reconsidered: A Behavior-Based Approach to Evaluating and Improving the Sales Potency of Advertising,” Journal of Advertising Research, 35 (5), 33–53.
  • La Ferle, Carrie and Steven M. Edwards (2006), “Product Placement: How Brands Appear on Television,” Journal of Advertising, 35 (4), 65–86.
  • Laran, Juliano (2010), “The Influence of Information Processing Goal Pursuit on Postdecision Affect and Behavioral Intentions,” Journal of personality and social psychology, 98 (1), 16–28.
  • Laran, Juliano, Amy N. Dalton, and Eduardo B. Andrade (2011), “The Curious Case of Behavioral Backlash: Why Brands Produce Priming Effects and Slogans Produce Reverse Priming Effects,” The Journal of Consumer Research, 37 (6), 999–1014.
  • Laroche, Michel, Mark Cleveland, and Irene Maravelakis (2006), “Competitive Advertising Interference and Ad Repetition Effects: Comparing High-Share and Low-Share Brands,” International Journal of Advertising, 25 (3), 271–307.
  • Lasauskaite, Ruta, Gendolla, Guido H. E., and Nicolas Silvestrini (2013), “Do sadness-primes make me work harder because they make me sad?” Cognition & Emotion, 27 (1), 158–65.
  • Laurent, Gilles and Jean-Noël Kapferer (1985), “Measuring Consumer Involvement Profiles,” Journal of Marketing Research, 22 (1), 41–53.
  • Lavie, Nilli (2005), “Distracted and Confused?: Selective Attention Under Load,” Trends in cognitive sciences, 9 (2), 75–82.
  • Law, Sharmistha and Kathryn A. Braun (2000), “I’ll Have What She’s Having: Gauging the Impact of Product Placements on Viewers,” Psychology and Marketing, 17 (12), 1059–75.
  • Lee, Angela Y. and Aparna A. Labroo (2004), “The Effect of Conceptual and Perceptual Fluency on Brand Evaluation,” Journal of Marketing Research, 41 (2), 151–65.
  • Lee, Mira and Ronald J. Faber (2007), “Effects of Product Placement in On-Line Games on Brand Memory,” Journal of Advertising, 36 (4), 75–90.
  • Lehu, Jean-Marc (2007), Branded Entertainment: Product Placement and Brand Strategy in the Entertainment Business, London: Kogan Page Publishers.
  • Lehu, Jean-Marc and Étienne Bressoud (2009), “Recall of Brand Placement in Movies: Interactions between Prominence and Plot Connection in Real Conditions of Exposure,” Recherche et Applications en Marketing (English Edition), 24 (1), 7–26.
  • Lerner, Itamar, Shlomo Bentin, and Oren Shriki (2014), “Integrating the Automatic and the Controlled: Strategies in Semantic Priming in an Attractor Network With Latching Dynamics,” Cognitive Science, 38 (8), 1562–603.
  • Levitt, Theodore (1970), “The Morality (?) of Advertising,” Harvard Business Review, 48, 84–92.
  • Levy, Betty A. and Kim Kirsner (1989), “Reprocessing Text: Indirect Measures of Word and Message Level Processes,” Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 15 (3), 407–17.
  • Libet, Benjamin (2005), Mind Time. Wie das Gehirn Bewusstsein produziert, Frankfurt am Main: Suhrkamp.
  • Lin, Hui-Fei (2014), “The effect of product placement on persuasion for mobile phone games,” International Journal of Advertising, 33 (1), 37.
  • Lingle, John H., Mark W. Alton, and Douglas L. Medin (1984), “Of Cabbages and Kings: Assessing the Extendibility of Natural Object Models to Social Things,” in Handbook of Social Cognition, ed. Robert S. Wyer and Thomas K. Srull, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 71–117.
  • Lodish, Leonard M., Magid Abraham, Stuart Kalmenson, Jeanne Livelsberger, Beth Lubetkin, Bruce Richardson, and Mary E. Stevens (1995), “How T.V. Advertising Works: A Meta-Analysis of 389 Real World Split Cable T.V. Advertising Experiments,” Journal of Marketing Research (JMR), 32 (2), 125–39.
  • Luby, Michael (1996), Pseudorandomness and Cryptographic Applications, Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press.
  • Lucas, Darrel B. and M. J. Murphy (1939), “False Identification of Advertisements in Recognition Tests,” Journal of Applied Psychology, 23 (2), 264–69.
  • Lynch, John G. and Thomas K. Srull (1982), “Memory and Attentional Factors in Consumer Choice: Concepts and Research Methods,” Journal of Consumer Research, 9 (1), 18–37.
  • MacInnis, Deborah J., Christine Moorman, and Bernard J. Jaworski (1991), “Enhancing and Measuring Consumer’s Motivation, Opportunity, and Ability to Process Brand Information From Ads,” Journal of Marketing, 55 (October), 32–53.
  • Mack, Arien and Irvin Rock (2000), Inattentional Blindness, Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press.
  • Macklin, Carole M. (1985), “Do Young Children Understand the Selling Intent of Commercials?” Journal of Consumer Affairs, 19 (2), 293–304.
  • MacLeod, Colin M. (1989), “Word Context during Initial Exposure Influences Degree of Priming in Word Fragment Completion,” Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 15 (3), 398–406.
  • Maclnnis, Deborah J. and Bernard J. Jaworski (1989), “Information Processing from Advertisements: Toward an Integrative Framework,” Journal of Marketing, 53 (4), 1–23.
  • Madrigal, Robert (2001), “Social Identity Effects in a Belief-Attitude-Intentions Hierarchy: Implications for Corporate Sponsorship,” Psychology and Marketing, 18 (2), 145–65.
  • Maimaran, Michal and S. C. Wheeler (2008), “Circles, Squares, and Choice: The Effect of Shape Arrays on Uniqueness and Variety Seeking,” Journal of Marketing Research, 45 (6), 731–40.
  • Mallinckrodt, Victoria and Dick Mizerski (2007), “The Effects of Playing an Advergame on Young Children’s Perceptions, Preferences, and Requests,” Journal of Advertising, 36 (2), 87–100.
  • Maloney, John C. and Bernard Silverman, eds. (1979), Attitude Research Plays for High Stakes, Chicago: American Marketing Association.
  • Mandel, Naomi and Eric J. Johnson (2002), “When Web Pages Influence Choice: Effects of Visual Primes on Experts and Novices,” Journal of Consumer Research, 29 (2), 235–45.
  • Mandler, George (1980), “Recognizing: The Judgment of Previous Occurrence,” Psychological Review, 87 (3), 252–71.
  • Markus, Hazel (1977), “Self-Schemata and Processing Information about the Self,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 35 (2), 63–78.
  • Marsh, Richard L., Jason L. Hicks, and Martin L. Bink (1998), “Activation of Completed, Uncompleted, and Partially Completed Intentions,” Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 24 (2), 350–61.
  • Martin, Leonard L., John J. Seta, and Rick A. Crelia (1990), “Assimilation and Contrast as a Function of People’s Willingness and Ability to Expend Effort in Forming an Impression,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 59 (1), 27–37.
  • Masling, Joseph, ed. (1990), Empirical Studies of Psychoanalytic Theories, Hillsdale, NJ: Analytic Press.
  • Matthes, Jörg, Christian Schemer, and Werner Wirth (2007), “More than Meets the Eye: Investigating the Hidden Impact of Brand Placements in Television Magazines,” International Journal of Advertising, 26 (4), 477–503.
  • Mau, Gunnar, Günter Silberer, and Christoph Constien (2008), “Communicating Brands Playfully: Effects of In-Game Advertising for Familiar and Unfamiliar Brands,” International Journal of Advertising, 27 (5), 827–51.
  • Mayer, Hans and Tanja Illmann (2000), Markt- und Werbepsychologie, Stuttgart: Schaffer-Poeschel.
  • McAlister, Leigh and Edgar Pessemier (1982), “Variety Seeking Behavior: An Interdisciplinary Review,” Journal of Consumer Research, 9 (3), 311–22.
  • McDonald, Colin (1991), “Sponsorship and the Image of the Sponsor,” European Journal of Marketing, 25, 31–38.
  • McGinnies, Elliott (1949), “Emotionality and Perceptual Defense,” Psychological Review, 56 (5), 244–51.
  • McKechnie, Sally A. and Jia Zhou (2003), “Product Placement in Movies: A Comparison of Chinese and American Consumers’ Attitudes,” International Journal of Advertising, 22 (3), 349–74.
  • McKoon, Gail and Roger Ratcliff (1995), “Conceptual Combinations and Relational Contexts in Free Association and in Priming in Lexical Decision and Naming,” Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 2 (4), 527–33.
  • McQuarrie, Edward F. and Michael J. Munson (1987), “The Zaichkowsky Personal Involvement Inventory: Modification and Extension,” in NA – Advances in Consumer Research Volume 14, ed. Melanie Wallendorf and Paul Anderson, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research, 36–40.
  • Medina, John (2004), “The Neurobiology of the Decision To Buy,” Psychiatric Times, 21 (10), 31–34.
  • Meenaghan, Tony (1991), “Sponsorship – Legitimising the Medium,” European Journal of Marketing, 25 (11), 5–10.
  • Merikle, Philip M. (1988), “Subliminal Auditory Messages: An Evaluation,” Psychology and Marketing, 5 (4), 355–72.
  • Meyer, Wulf-Uwe and Michael Niepel (1994), “Surprise,” in Encyclopedia of Human Behavior, ed. Vilanayur S. Ramachandran, San Diego, CA: Academic Press, 353–58.
  • Meyers-Levy, Joan and Prashant Malaviya (1999), “Consumers’ Processing of Persuasive Advertisements: An Integrative Framework of Persuasion Theories,” in “Fundamental Issues and Directions for Marketing,” Special Issue. Journal of Marketing, 63, 45–60.
  • Michaelidou, Nina and Sally Dibb (2008), “Consumer Involvement: A New Perspective,” The Marketing Review, 8 (1), 83–99.
  • Mierke, Jan and Karl C. Klauer (2003), “Method-Specific Variance in the Implicit Association Test,” Journal of personality and social psychology, 85 (6), 1180–92.
  • Miller, George A. (1956), “The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on Our Capacity for Processing Information,” The Psychological Review, 63 (2), 81–97.
  • Miller, Mark C. (1990a), “End of Story,” in Seeing Through Movies, ed. Mark C. Miller, New York: Pantheon Books, 186–246.
  • ________ (1990b), Seeing Through Movies, New York: Pantheon Books.
  • Mitchell, Jason P., C. Neil Macrae, and Mahzarin R. Banaji (2005), “Forming Impressions of People versus Inanimate Objects: Social-Cognitive Processing in the Medial Prefrontal Cortex,” NeuroImage, 26 (1), 251–57.
  • Molesworth, Mike (2006), “Real brands in imaginary worlds: investigating players’ experiences of brand placement in digital games,” Journal of Consumer Behaviour, 5 (4), 355–66.
  • Monroe, Kent B. and Angela V. Lee (1999), “Remembering versus Knowing: Issues in Buyers’ Processing of Price Information,” Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 27 (2), 207–25.
  • Monsell, Stephen and Jon Driver, eds. (2000), Control of Cognitive Processes, Cambridge: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press.
  • Moore, Timothy E. (1982), “Subliminal Advertising: What You See Is What You Get,” Journal of Marketing, 46 (2), 38–47.
  • ________ (1988), “The Case against Subliminal Manipulation,” Psychology and Marketing, 5 (4), 297–316.
  • Moorman, Marjolein, Lotte M. Willemsen, Peter C. Neijens, and Edith G. Smit (2012), “Program-Involvement Effects on commercial Attention and Recall of Successive and Embedded Advertising,” Journal of Advertising, 41 (2), 25–38.
  • Moreland, R. L. and R. B. Zajonc (1977), “Is Stimulus Recognition a Necessary Condition for the Occurrence of Exposure Effects?” Journal of personality and social psychology, 35 (4), 191–99.
  • Morton, Cynthia R. and Meredith Friedman (2002), “’I Saw It In The Movies’: Exploring the Link Between Product Placement Beliefs and Reported Usage Behavior,” Journal of Current Issues & Research in Advertising (CTC Press), 24 (2), 33–40.
  • Moschis, George P. (1987), Consumer Socialization. A Life-Cycle Perspective, Lexington, Mass: Lexington Books.
  • Murphy, Sheila T. and Robert B. Zajonc (1993), “Affect, Cognition, and Awareness: Affective Priming with Optimal and Suboptimal Stimulus Exposures,” Journal of personality and social psychology, 64 (5), 723–39.
  • Musen, Gail and Larry R. Squire (1992), “Nonverbal Priming in Amnesia,” Memory & cognition, 20 (4), 441–48.
  • Muzellec, Laurent, Christopher Kanitz, and Theodore Lynn (2014), “Fancy a coffee with Friends in ‘Central Perk’? Reverse product placement, fictional brands and purchase intention,” International Journal of Advertising, 32 (3), 399.
  • Narayana, Chem L. and Rom J. Markin (1975), “Consumer Behavior and Product Performance: An Alternative Conceptualization,” Journal of Marketing, 39 (4), 1–6.
  • Nebenzahl, Israel D. and Eugene Secunda (1993), “Consumers’ Attitudes Toward Product Placement in Movies,” International Journal of Advertising, 12 (1), 1–12.
  • Nedungadi, Prakash (1990), “Recall and Consumer Consideration Sets: Influencing Choice without Altering Brand Evaluations,” Journal of Consumer Research, 17 (3), 263–76.
  • Nedungadi, Prakash and J. W. Hutchinson (1985), “The Prototypicality of Brands: Relationships With Brand Awareness, Preference and Usage,” Advances in Consumer Research, 12 (1), 498–503.
  • Neely, James H. (1991), “Semantic Priming Effects in Visual Word Recognition: A Selective Review of Current Findings and Theories,” in Basic Processes in Reading: Visual Word Recognition, ed. Derek Besner and Glyn W. Humphreys, Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 265–335.
  • Nelson, Leif D. and Michael I. Norton (2005), “From Student to Superhero: Situational Primes Shape Future Helping,” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 41 (4), 423–30.
  • Nelson, Michelle R. (2002), “Recall of Brand Placements in Computer/Video Games,” Journal of Advertising Research, 42 (2), 80–92.
  • Nelson, Michelle R. and Sameer Deshpande (2013), “The Prevalence of and Consumer Response to Foreign and Domestic Brand Placement in Bollywood Movies,” Journal of Advertising, 42 (1), 1–15.
  • Nelson, Michelle R., Ronald A. Yaros, and Heejo Keum (2006), “Examining the Influence of Telepresence on Spectator and Player Processing of Real and Fictitious Brands in a Computer Game,” Journal of Advertising, 35 (4), 87–99.
  • Nicovich, Stefan G. (2005), “The Effect of Involvement on Ad Judgement on a Video Game Environment. The Mediating Role of Presence,” Journal of Interactive Advertising, 6 (1), 29–39.
  • Niedenthal, Paula M. and Shinobu Kitayama, eds. (1994), The Heart’s Eye: Emotional Influences in Perception and Attention, San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
  • Noguti, Valeria and Cristel A. Russell (2014), “Normative Influences on Product Placement Effects: Alcohol Brands in Television Series and the Influence of Presumed Influence,” Journal of Advertising, 43 (1), 46–62.
  • Nordhielm, Christie L. (2002), “The Influence of Level of Processing on Advertising Repetition Effects,” Journal of Consumer Research, 29 (3), 371–82.
  • Norretranders, Tor (1999), The User Illusion. Cutting Consciousness Down to Size, New York, NY: Penguin Books.
  • Norris, Claire E. and Andrew M. Colman (1992), “Context Effects on Recall and Recognition of Magazine Advertisements,” Journal of Advertising, 21 (3), 37–46.
  • Novak, Thomas P. (1990), “A Framework for Consideration Set Formation,” working paper, Graduate School of Business, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027.
  • O’Connor, Daniel H., Miki M. Fukui, Mark A. Pinsk, and Sabine Kastner (2002), “Attention Modulates Responses in the Human Lateral Geniculate Nucleus,” Nature neuroscience, 5 (11), 1203–09.
  • Olney, Thomas J., Morris B. Holbrook, and Rajeev Batra (1991), “Consumer Responses to Advertising: The Effects of Ad Content, Emotions, and Attitude toward the Ad on Viewing Time,” Journal of Consumer Research, 17 (4), 440–53.
  • Olson, Jerry and Keith Sentis, eds., Advertising and Consumer Psychology, New York: Praeger.
  • Ong, Beng Soo and David Meri (1994), “Should Product Placement in Movies be Banned?” Journal of Promotion Management, 2 (3/4), 159–75.
  • Orth, Ulrich R. and Denisa Holancova (2003), “Consumer Response to Sex Role Portrayals in Advertisements: Effects of Incongruity and Prejudices on Emotions and Attitudes,” Journal of Advertising, 32 (4), 77–89.
  • Owen, Laura, Charlie Lewis, Susan Auty, and Moniek Buijzen (2013), “Is Children’s Understanding of Nontraditional Advertising Comparable to Their Understanding of Television Advertising?” Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 32 (2), 195–206.
  • Panda, Tapan K. (2004), “Effectiveness of Product Placements in Indian Films and its Effects on Brand Memory and Attitude with Special Reference on Hindi Films,” The ICFAI Journal of Marketing Management (August), 41–56.
  • Park, Jooyoung and William Hedgcock (2014), “The “Left-To-Right Effect” of Product Location on Consumer Judgment,” Advances in Consumer Research, 42, 633–34.
  • Parker, Ken (1991), “Sponsorship: The Research Contribution,” European Journal of Marketing, 25 (11), 22–30.
  • Perfect, T. J. and C. Askew (1994), “Print Adverts: Not Remembered but Memorable,” Applied Cognitive Psychology, 8 (7), 693–703.
  • Perruchet, Pierre and Patrice Baveux (1989), “Correlational Analyses of Explicit and Implicit Memory Performance,” Memory & Cognition, 17 (January), 77–86.
  • Peters, Sara and Glenn Leshner (2013), “Get in the Game: The Effects of Game-Product Congruity and Product Placement Proximity on Game Players’ Processing of Brands Embedded in Advergames,” Journal of Advertising, 42 (2-3), 113–30.
  • Petty, Richard E. and John T. Cacioppo (1986), Communication and Persuasion. Central and Peripheral Routes to Attitude Change, New York, NY: Springer.
  • Petty, Richard E., John T. Cacioppo, and David Schumann (1983), “Central and Peripheral Routes to Advertising Effectiveness: The Moderating Role of Involvement,” Journal of Consumer Research, 10 (2), 135–46.
  • Poels, Karolien, Wim Janssens, and Laura Herrewijn (2013), “Play Buddies or Space Invaders? Players’ Attitudes Toward In-Game Advertising,” Journal of Advertising, 42 (2-3), 204–18.
  • Pope, Nigel (1998), “Consumption Values, Sponsorship Awareness, Brand and Product Use,” Journal of Product & Brand Management, 7 (2), 124–36.
  • Pratkanis, Anthony and Elliot Aronson (2001), Age of Propaganda: The Everyday Use and Abuse of Persuasion: Holt Paperbacks.
  • Pratkanis, Anthony R. (1992), “The Cargo-Cult Science of Subliminal Persuasion,” Skeptical Inquirer, 16, 260–72.
  • Pratkanis, Anthony R., Steven J. Breckler, and Anthony G. Greenwald, eds. (1989), Attitude Structure and Function, News Jersey, USA: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
  • Pratkanis, Anthony R. and Anthony G. Greenwald (1988), “Recent Perspectives on Unconscious Processing: Still no Marketing Applications,” Psychology and Marketing, 5 (4), 337–53.
  • Purnawirawan, Nathalia, Marijke Wouters, and Patrick De Pelsmacker (2010), “Brand Placements in Movies: The Impact of Modality, Prominence and Plot Connection on Attitude and Behavioral Intention,” in Advances in Advertising Research (Vol. 1), ed. Ralf Terlutter, Sandra Diehl, and Shintaro Okazaki: Gabler, 347-361.
  • Quester, Pascale and Francis Farrelly (1998), “Brand Association and Memory Decay Effects of Sponsorship: The Case of the Australian Formula One Grand Prix,” Journal of Product & Brand Management, 7 (6), 539–56.
  • Ramachandran, Vilanayur S., ed. (1994), Encyclopedia of Human Behavior, San Diego, CA: Academic Press.
  • Ramanathan, Suresh and Geeta Menon (2006), “Time-Varying Effects of Chronic Hedonic Goals on Impulsive Behavior,” Journal of Marketing Research, 43 (4), 628–41.
  • Ratner, Rebecca K. and Barbara E. Kahn (2002), “The Impact of Private versus Public Consumption on Variety‐Seeking Behavior,” Journal of Consumer Research, 29 (2), 246–57.
  • Ratneshwar, S. and Allan D. Shocker (1991), “Substitution in Use and the Role of Usage Context in Product Category Structures,” Journal of Marketing Research, 28 (3), 281–95.
  • Reber, Arthur S. (1989), “Implicit Learning and Tacit Knowledge,” Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 118 (3), 219–35.
  • Reber, Arthur S., Faye F. Walkenfeld, and Ruth Hernstadt (1991), “Implicit and Explicit Learning: Individual Differences and IQ,” Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 17 (5), 888–96.
  • Redker, Christopher, Bryan Gibson, and Ian Zimmerman (2013), “Liking of Movie Genre Alters the Effectiveness of Background Product Placements,” Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 35 (3), 249–55.
  • Redondo, Ignacio (2012), “The Behavioral Effects of Negative Product Placements in Movies,” Psychology and Marketing, 29 (8), 622–35.
  • Rees, Geraint and Nilli Lavie (2001), “What Can Functional Imaging Reveal about the Role of Attention in Visual Awareness?” Neuropsychologia, 39 (12), 1343–53.
  • Richardson-Klavehn, Alan and Robert A. Bjork (1988), “Measures of Memory,” Annual Review of Psychology, 39 (1), 475–543.
  • Richins, Marsha L. and Peter H. Bloch (1986), “After the New Wears Off: The Temporal Context of Product Involvement,” Journal of Consumer Research, 13 (2), 280–85.
  • Roberts, John (1989), “A Grounded Model of Consideration Set Size and Composition,” Advances in Consumer Research, 16 (1), 749–57.
  • Roberts, John H. and Lattin M. James (1991), “Development and Testing of a Model of Consideration Set Composition,” Journal of Marketing Research, 28 (4), 429–40.
  • Robertson, Thomas S. and Harold H. Kassarjian, eds. (1991), Handbook of Consumer Behavior, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
  • Robin, Donald P. and R. E. Reidenbach (1987), “Social Responsibility, Ethics, and Marketing Strategy: Closing the Gap between Concept and Application,” Journal of Marketing, 51 (1), 44–58.
  • Rodgers, Shelly (2003), “The Effects of Sponsor Relevance on Consumer Reactions to Internet Sponsorships,” Journal of Advertising, 32 (4), 67–76.
  • Roediger, Henry L. (1990), “Implicit Memory. Retention without Remembering,” The American psychologist, 45 (9), 1043–56.
  • Roediger, Henry L. and Teresa A. Blaxton (1987), “Effects of Varying Modality, Surface Features, and Retention Interval on Priming in Word-Fragment Completion,” Memory & Cognition, 15 (5), 379–88.
  • Roehm, Michelle L., Harper A. Roehm, and Derrick S. Boone (2004), “Plugs versus Placements: A Comparison of Alternatives for Within-Program Brand Exposure,” Psychology and Marketing, 21 (1), 17–28.
  • Rosenholtz, Ruth, Bernice E. Rogowitz, and Thrasyvoulos N. Pappas (2011), “,” in IS&T/SPIE Electronic Imaging. SPIE Proceedings: SPIE, 786510–786510-14.
  • Rössler, Patrick and Julia Bacher (2002), “Transcultural Effects of Product Placement in Movies: A comparison of Placement Impact in Germany and the USA,” Zeitschrift für Medienpsychologie, 14 (3), 98–108.
  • Rothschild, Michael L. (1979), “Advertising Strategies for High and Low Involvement Situations,” in Attitude Research Plays for High Stakes, ed. John C. Maloney and Bernard Silverman, Chicago: American Marketing Association, 74–93.
  • Russell, Cristel A. (1998), “Toward a Framework of Product Placement: Theoretical Propositions,” Advances in Consumer Research, 25 (1), 357–62.
  • ________ (2002), “Investigating the Effectiveness of Product Placements in Television Shows: The Role of Modality and Plot Connection Congruence on Brand Memory and Attitude,” Journal of Consumer Research, 29 (3), 306–18.
  • Russell, Cristel A. and Michael Belch (2005), “A Managerial Investigation into the Product Placement Industry,” Journal of Advertising Research, 45 (1), 73–92.
  • Russell, Cristel A. and Barbara B. Stern (2005), “Product Placement Effects: Product-Character Associations (PCAs) in Sitcoms,” Advances in Consumer Research, 32 (1), 233–35.
  • ________ (2006), “Consumers, Characters, and Products: A Balance Model of Sitcom Product Placement Effects,” Journal of Advertising, 35 (1), 7–21.
  • Sachse, Manuela (2010), Negative Kommunikationseffekte von Sponsoring und Ambush-Marketing bei Sportgroßveranstaltungen, Wiesbaden: Gabler.
  • Saegert, Joel (1987), “Why Marketing Should Quit Giving Subliminal Advertising the Benefit of the Doubt,” Psychology and Marketing, 4 (2), 107–20.
  • Sanyal, Abhijit (1992), “Priming and Implicit Memory: A Review and a Synthesis Relevant for Consumer Behavior,” Advances in Consumer Research, 19, 795–805.
  • Schacter, Daniel L. (1987), “Implicit Memory: History and Current Status,” Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 13 (3), 501–18.
  • ________ (1992), “Priming and Multiple Memory Systems: Perceptual Mechanisms of Implicit Memory,” Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 4 (3), 244–56.
  • Schacter, Daniel L., Lynn A. Cooper, Mindy Tharan, and Alan B. Rubens (1991), “Preserved Priming of Novel Objects in Patients with Memory Disorders,” Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 3 (2), 117–30.
  • Schemer, Christian, Jörg Matthes, Werner Wirth, and Samuel Textor (2008), “Does ‘Passing the Courvoisier’ Always Pay Off? Positive and Negative Evaluative Conditioning Effects of Brand Placements in Music Videos,” Psychology and Marketing, 25 (10), 923–43.
  • Scheufele, Dietram A. and David Tewksbury (2007), “Framing, Agenda Setting, and Priming: The Evolution of Three Media Effects Models,” Journal of Communication, 57 (1), 9–20.
  • Schmidt, Robert F. and Gerhard Thews, eds. (1989), Human Physiology, Berlin: Springer.
  • Schmoll, Nicole M., John Hafer, Michael Hilt, and Hugh Reilly (2006), “Baby Boomers’ Attitudes towards Product Placements,” Journal of Current Issues & Research in Advertising, 28 (2), 33–53.
  • Schneider, Lars-Peter and T. B. Cornwell (2005), “Cashing in on Crashes via Brand Placement in Computer Games: The Effects of Experience and Flow on Memory,” International Journal of Advertising, 24 (3), 321–43.
  • Schorn, Robert (2010), “Nichtbewusste Beeinflussung von Konsumenten,” working paper, AK-Wien, Abteilung Konsumentenpolitik.
  • Schumacher, Pascal (2007), Effektivitat von Ausgestaltungsformen des Product Placement, Wiesbaden: Dt. Univ.-Verl.
  • Schwartz, Barry (2004), The Paradox of Choice: Why More is Less, New York: HarperCollins Publishers.
  • Schwartz, Sophie, Patrik Vuilleumier, Chloe Hutton, Angelo Maravita, Raymond J. Dolan, and Jon Driver (2005), “Attentional Load and Sensory Competition in Human Vision: Modulation of fMRI Responses by Load at Fixation during Task-Irrelevant Stimulation in the Peripheral Visual Field,” Cerebral cortex (New York, N.Y. : 1991), 15 (6), 770–86.
  • Schwarz, Norbert and Gerald L. Clore (1983), “Mood, Misattribution, and Judgments of Well-Being: Informative and Directive Functions of Affective States,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45 (3), 513–23.
  • Seamon, John G., Pepper C. Williams, Michael J. Crowley, Irene J. Kim, Samantha A. Langer, Peter J. Orne, and Dana L. Wishengrad (1995), “The Mere Exposure Effect is Based on Implicit Memory: Effects of Stimulus Type, Encoding Conditions, and Number of Exposures on Recognition and Affect Judgments,” Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 21 (3), 711–21.
  • Sela, Aner and Baba Shiv (2009), “Unraveling Priming: When Does the Same Prime Activate a Goal versus a Trait?” Journal of Consumer Research, 36 (3), 418–33.
  • Shah, James Y. (2003), “Automatic for the People: How Representations of Significant Others Implicitly Affect Goal Pursuit,” Journal of personality and social psychology, 84 (4), 661–81.
  • Shah, James Y. and Wendi L. Gardner, eds. (2008), Handbook of Motivation Science, New York: Guilford Press.
  • Shapiro, Stewart (1999), “When an Ad’s Influence Is Beyond Our Conscious Control: Perceptual and Conceptual Fluency Effects Caused by Incidental Ad Exposure,” Journal of Consumer Research, 26 (1), 16–36.
  • Shapiro, Stewart and H. S. Krishnan (2001), “Memory-Based Measures for Assessing Advertising Effects: A Comparison of Explicit and Implicit Memory Effects,” Journal of Advertising, 30 (3), 1–13.
  • Shapiro, Stewart, Deborah J. MacInnis, and Susan E. Heckler (1997), “The Effects of Incidental Ad Exposure on the Formation of Consideration Sets,” Journal of Consumer Research, 24 (1), 94–104.
  • Shapiro, Stewart, Deborah J. MacInnis, Susan E. Heckler, and Ann M. Perez (1999), “An Experimental Method for Studying Unconscious Perception in a Marketing Context,” Psychology and Marketing, 16 (6), 459–77.
  • Shapiro, Stewart A. and Deborah J. MacInnis (1992), “Mapping the Relationship between Preattentive Processing and Attitudes,” Advances in Consumer Research, 19, 505–13.
  • Shapiro, Stewart A. and Jesper H. Nielsen (2013), “What the Blind Eye Sees: Incidental Change Detection as a Source of Perceptual Fluency,” Journal of Consumer Research, 39 (6), 1202–18.
  • Shavitt, Sharon and Timothy C. Brock, “Self-Relevant Responses in Commercial Persuasion: Field and Experimental Tests,” in Advertising and Consumer Psychology, ed. Jerry Olson and Keith Sentis, New York: Praeger, 149–71.
  • ________ (1998), Persuasion. Psychological Insights and Perspectives, Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
  • Shedler, Jonathan and Melvin Manis (1986), “Can the Availability Heuristic Explain Vividness Effects?” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51 (1), 26–36.
  • Sheehan, Kim B. and Aibing Guo (2005), ““Leaving on a (Branded) Jet Plane”: An Exploration of Audience Attitudes towards Product Assimilation in Television Content,” Journal of Current Issues & Research in Advertising, 27 (1), 79–91.
  • Shevrin, Howard (1990), “Subliminal Perception and Repression,” in Repression and Dissociation. Implications for Personality Theory, Psychopathology, and Health, ed. Jerome L. Singer, Chicago, Ill: Univ. of Chicago Press, 103–19.
  • ________ (2001), “Event-Related Markers of Unconscious Processes,” International Journal of Psychophysiology, 42 (2), 209–18.
  • Shevrin, Howard, James A. Bond, Linda A. W. Brakel, Richard K. Hertel, and William J. Williams (1996), Conscious and Unconscious Processes. Psychodynamic Cognitive and Neurophysiological Convergences, New York: Guilford Press.
  • Shocker, Allan D., Moshe Ben-Akiva, Bruno Boccara, and Prakash Nedungadi (1991), “Consideration Set Influence on Consumer Decision-Making and Choice: Issues, Models, and Suggestions,” Marketing Letters, 2 (3), 181–97.
  • Shugan, Steven M. (1980), “The Cost of Thinking,” Journal of Consumer Research, 7 (2), 99–111.
  • Shulman, Robert G., Fahmeed Hyder, and Douglas L. Rothman (2009), “Baseline Brain Energy Supports the State of Consciousness,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106 (27), 11096–101.
  • Silver, N. C., Mc Culley, William L., Lana N. Chambliss, Carmen M. Charles, Andrea A. Smith, Wanda M. Waddell, and Evelyn B. Winfield (1988), “Sex and Racial Differences in Color and Number Preferences,” Perceptual and Motor Skills, 66 (1), 295–99.
  • Singer, Jerome L., ed. (1990), Repression and Dissociation. Implications for Personality Theory, Psychopathology, and Health, Chicago, Ill: Univ. of Chicago Press.
  • Singh, Surendra N. and Catherine A. Cole (1989), “Advertising Copy Testing in Print Media,” Current Issues and Research in Advertising, 11 (2), 215–84.
  • Singh, Surendra N., Michael L. Rothschild, and Gilbert A. Churchill, JR. (1988), “Recognition versus Recall as Measures of Television Commercial Forgetting,” Journal of Marketing Research, 25 (1), 72–80.
  • Smeesters, Dirk, Vincent Y. Yzerbyt, Olivier Corneille, and Luk Warlop (2009), “When Do Primes Prime? The Moderating Role of the Self-Concept in Individuals’ Susceptibility to Priming Effects on Social Behavior,” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45 (1), 211–16.
  • Sorrentino, Richard M., ed. (1990), Handbook of Motivation and Cognition. Foundations of Social Behavior, New York: The Guilford Press.
  • Srinivas, Kavitha (1993), “Perceptual Specificity in Nonverbal Priming,” Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 19 (3), 582–602.
  • Steffen, Celina, Gunnar Mau, and Hanna Schramm-Klein (2013), “Who Is the Loser When I Lose the Game? Does Losing an Advergame Have a Negative Impact on the Perception of the Brand?” Journal of Advertising, 42 (2-3), 183–95.
  • Steortz, Eva (1987), “The Cost Efficiency and Communication Effects Associated with Brand Name Exposure within Motion Pictures,” unpublished master’s thesis, School of Journalism, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506.
  • Storm, Benjamin C. and Eve Stoller (2015), “Exposure to Product Placement in Text Can Influence Consumer Judgments,” Applied Cognitive Psychology, 29 (1), 20–31.
  • Strack, Fritz, Leonard L. Martin, and Norbert Schwarz (1988), “Priming and Communication: Social Determinants of Information Use in Judgments of Life Satisfaction,” European Journal of Social Psychology, 18 (5), 429–42.
  • Strahan, Erin J., Steven J. Spencer, and Mark P. Zanna (2002), “Subliminal Priming and Persuasion: Striking While the Iron is Hot,” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 38 (6), 556–68.
  • Stross, Lawrence and Howard Shevrin (1969), “Hypnosis As a Method for Investigating Unconscious Thought Processes: A Review of Research,” Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 17 (1), 100–35.
  • Stuart, Elnora W., Terence A. Shimp, and Randall W. Engle (1987), “Classical Conditioning of Consumer Attitudes: Four Experiments in an Advertising Context,” Journal of Consumer Research, 14 (3), 334–49.
  • Suk, Hyeon-Jeong (2006), “Color and Emotion – a study on the affective judgment across media and in relation to visual stimuli,” Dissertation, Fachbereich Sozialwissenschaften, Universität Mannheim, Mannheim, Baden-Württemberg 68131.
  • Summey, John H. and Ronald D. Taylor, eds. (1980), Evolving Marketing Thought for 1980, Carbondale, IL: Southern Marketing Association.
  • Sundaram, D. S. and Cynthia Webster (1999), “The Role of Brand Familiarity on the Impact of Word-of-Mouth Communication on Brand Evaluations,” Advances in Consumer Research, 26 (1), 664–70.
  • Sutherland, Max and Larry Friedman (2000), “Do You Model Ad Awareness of Advertising Awareness?” Journal of Advertising Research, 40 (5), 32–36.
  • Synodinos, Nicolaos E. (1988), “Subliminal Stimulation: What Does the Public Think about It?” Current Issues & Research in Advertising, 11 (1), 157–85.
  • Talmi, Deborah, René Hurlemann, Alexandra Patin, and Raymond J. Dolan (2010), “Framing Effect Following Bilateral Amygdala Lesion,” Neuropsychologia, 48 (6), 1823–27.
  • Teige-Mocigemba, Sarah and Karl C. Klauer (2013), “On the controllability of evaluative-priming effects: Some limits that are none,” Cognition & Emotion, 27 (4), 632–57.
  • Terlutter, Ralf and Michael L. Capella (2013), “The Gamification of Advertising: Analysis and Research Directions of In-Game Advertising, Advergames, and Advertising in Social Network Games,” Journal of Advertising, 42 (2-3), 95–112.
  • Terlutter, Ralf, Sandra Diehl, and Shintaro Okazaki, eds. (2010), Advances in Advertising Research (Vol. 1): Gabler.
  • Tessitore, Tina and Maggie Geuens (2012), “Should You Or Could You? the Effect of Social Influence in Text Warnings Against Product Placement and the Moderating Role of Self-Monitoring”,” Advances in Consumer Research, 40, 937–38.
  • Thomas, Sunil and Chiranjeev S. Kohli (2011), “Can brand image move upwards after Sideways? A strategic approach to brand placements,” Business Horizons, 54 (1), 41–49.
  • Tiwsakul, Rungpaka A. and Christopher Hackley (2007), “Young Thai and UK Consumers’ Experiences of Television Product Placement- Engagement, Resistance and Objectification,” in Borderless Consumption: Asia Pacific Advances in Consumer Research Volume 7, ed. Margaret Craig-Lees, Gary Gregory, and Teresa Davis, Duluth, MN: Association of Consumer Research, 371–76.
  • Tiwsakul, Rungpaka A., Christopher Hackley, and Isabelle Szmigin (2005), “Explicit, Non-Integrated Product Placement in British Television Programmes,” International Journal of Advertising, 24 (1), 95–111.
  • Todorov, Alexander and Andrew D. Engell (2008), “The Role of the Amygdala in Implicit Evaluation of Emotionally Neutral Faces,” Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience, 3 (4), 303–12.
  • Todorov, Alexander, Anesu N. Mandisodza, Amir Goren, and Crystal C. Hall (2005), “Inferences of Competence from Faces Predict Election Outcomes,” Science, 308 (5728), 1623–26.
  • Tom, Gail (2004), “The Endowment-Institutional Affinity Effect,” The Journal of psychology, 138 (2), 160–70.
  • Tom, Gail, Carolyn Nelson, Tamara Srzentic, and Ryan King (2007), “Mere Exposure and the Endowment Effect on Consumer Decision Making,” The Journal of psychology, 141 (2), 117–25.
  • Tormala, Zakary L. and Richard E. Petty (2001), “On-Line versus Memory-Based Processing: The Role of “Need to Evaluate” in Person Perception,” Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27 (12), 1599–612.
  • Trappey, Charles (1996), “A Meta-Analysis of Consumer Choice and Subliminal Advertising,” Psychology and Marketing, 13 (5), 517–30.
  • Trendel, Olivier and Luk Warlop (2007), “Positive Implicit Memory Effects For Event Incongruent Sponsorship,” Advances in Consumer Research, 34, 102–03.
  • Tulving, Endel, Daniel L. Schacter, and Heather A. Stark (1982), “Priming Effects in Word-Fragment Completion are Independent of Recognition Memory,” Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 8 (4), 336–42.
  • Turcotte, Samuel (1995), “Gimme a Bud! The Feature Film Product Placement Industry,” unpublished master’s thesis, The University of Texas at Austin, TX 78712.
  • Utz, Sonja (2004), “Self-Activation is a Two-Edged Sword: The Effects of I Primes on Cooperation,” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 40 (6), 769–76.
  • Valenzuela, Ana, Priya Raghubir, and Chrissy Mitakakis (2013), “Shelf space schemas. Myth or reality?” Journal of business research : JBR, 66 (7), 881–88.
  • van den Bussche, Eva, Karolien Notebaert, and Bert Reynvoet (2009), “Masked Primes Can be Genuinely Semantically Processed: A Picture Prime Study,” Experimental psychology, 56 (5), 295–300.
  • van den Bussche, Eva, Wim van den Noortgate, and Bert Reynvoet (2009), “Mechanisms of Masked Priming: A Meta-Analysis,” Psychological bulletin, 135 (3), 452–77.
  • van Kerckhove, Anneleen, Maggie Geuens, and Iris Vermeir (2015), “The Floor Is Nearer than the Sky: How Looking Up or Down Affects Construal Level,” Journal of Consumer Research, 41 (6), 1358–71.
  • van Reijmersdal, Eva (2009), “Brand Placement Prominence: Good for Memory! Bad for Attitudes?” Journal of Advertising Research, 49 (2), 151–53.
  • van Reijmersdal, Eva A., Peter C. Neijens, and Edith G. Smit (2005), “Readers’ Reactions to Mixtures of Advertising and Editorial Content in Magazines,” Journal of Current Issues & Research in Advertising, 27 (2), 39–53.
  • ________ (2007), “Effects of Television Brand Placement on Brand Image,” Psychology & Marketing, 24 (5), 403–20.
  • ________ (2009), “A New Branch of Advertising: Reviewing Factors That Influence Reactions to Product Placement,” Journal of Advertising Research, 49 (4), 429–40.
  • van Reijmersdal, Eva A., Esther Rozendaal, and Moniek Buijzen (2012), “Effects of Prominence, Involvement, and Persuasion Knowledge on Children’s Cognitive and Affective Responses to Advergames,” Journal of Interactive Marketing, 26 (1), 33–42.
  • Vaughn, Richard (1980), “How Advertising Works: A Planning Model,” Journal of Advertising Research, 20 (5), 27–33.
  • ________ (1986), “How Advertising Works: A Planning Model Revisited,” Journal of Advertising Research, 26 (1), 57–66.
  • Veltkamp, Martijn, Henk Aarts, and Ruud Custers (2008), “On the Emergence of Deprivation-Reducing Behaviors: Subliminal Priming of Behavior Representations Turns Deprivation into Motivation,” Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44 (3), 866–73.
  • Verhellen, Yann, Nathalie Dens, and Patrick De Pelsmacker (2015), “Do I know you? How brand familiarity and perceived fit affect consumers’ attitudes towards brands placed in movies,” Marketing Letters.
  • Verhellen, Yann, Nathalie Dens, and Patrick de Pelsmacker (2015), “Context Matters: Modeling the Impact of Context Perceptions on the Effectiveness of Brand Placement,” in Advances in Advertising Research (Vol. V), ed. Ivana B. Banks, Patrick de Pelsmacker, and Shintaro Okazaki, Wiesbaden: Springer Fachmedien Wiesbaden, 143–57.
  • Vermeir, Iris, Snezhanka Kazakova, Tina Tessitore, and Verolien Cauberghe (2015), “Impact of flow on recognition of and attitudes towards in-game brand placements: Brand congruence and placement prominence as moderators,” International Journal of Advertising, 33 (4), 785.
  • Verwijmeren, Thijs, Johan C. Karremans, Wolfgang Stroebe, and Daniël H. Wigboldus (2011), “The Workings and Limits of Subliminal Advertising: The Role of Habits,” Journal of Consumer Psychology, 21 (2), 206–13.
  • Vollmer, Stacy M. and Richard W. Mizerski (1994), “A Review and Investigation into the Effectiveness of Product Placements in Films,” in The Proceedings of the 1994 Conference of the American Academy of Advertising, ed. Karen W. King, Athens, GA: Henry W. Grady College of Journalism and Mass Communications, 97–102.
  • Waiguny, Martin K., Michelle R. Nelson, and Bernhard Marko (2013), “How Advergame Content Influences Explicit and Implicit Brand Attitudes: When Violence Spills Over,” Journal of Advertising, 42 (2-3), 155–69.
  • Wallendorf, Melanie and Paul Anderson, eds. (1987), NA – Advances in Consumer Research Volume 14, Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research.
  • Walliser, Björn (2003), “An International Review of Sponsorship Research: Extension and Update,” International Journal of Advertising, 22 (1), 5–40.
  • Walsh, Darlene (2014), “Can priming a healthy eating goal cause depleted consumers to prefer healthier snacks?” Journal of Consumer Marketing, 31 (2), 126–32.
  • Wang, Kai-Yu, Eric Shih, and Laura A. Peracchio (2013), “How banner ads can be effective: investigating the influences of exposure duration and banner ad complexity,” International Journal of Advertising, 32 (1), 121.
  • Weaver, Dana T. and Mary Beth Oliver (2000), “Television Programs and Advertising: Measuring the Effectiveness of Product Placement within Seinfeld,” paper presented to the Mass Communication Division at the 50th annual conference of the International Communication Association (ICA). Acapulco, Mexico.
  • Wedel, Michel and Rik Pieters (2000), “Eye Fixations on Advertisements and Memory for Brands: A Model and Findings,” Marketing Science, 19 (4), 297–312.
  • Wegener, Duane T. and Richard E. Petty (1994), “Mood management across affective states: The hedonic contingency hypothesis,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 66 (6), 1034–48.
  • ________ (1995), “Flexible Correction Processes in Social Judgment: The Role of Naive Theories in Corrections for Perceived Bias,” Journal of personality and social psychology, 68 (1), 36–51.
  • Wegner, Daniel M. (1994), White Bears and Other Unwanted Thoughts. Suppression, Obsession, and the Psycholgy of Mental Control, New York: Guilford Press.
  • Weinberger, N. M., P. E. Gold, and D. B. Sternberg (1984), “Epinephrine Enables Pavlovian Fear Conditioning under Anesthesia,” Science (New York, N.Y.), 223 (4636), 605–07.
  • Weller, Joshua A., Irwin P. Levin, Baba Shiv, and Antoine Bechara (2007), “Neural Correlates of Adaptive Decision Making for Risky Gains and Losses,” Psychological science, 18 (11), 958–64.
  • Wheeler, S. C. and Jonah Berger (2007), “When the Same Prime Leads to Different Effects,” Journal of Consumer Research, 34 (3), 357–68.
  • Wheeler, S. C., Kenneth G. DeMarree, and Richard E. Petty (2007), “Understanding the Role of the Self in Prime-to-Behavior Effects: The Active-Self Account,” Personality and Social Psychology Review, 11 (3), 234–61.
  • Wheeler, S. C. and Richard E. Petty (2001), “The Effects of Stereotype Activation on Behavior: A Review of Possible Mechanisms,” Psychological Bulletin, 127 (6), 797–826.
  • Wiles, Michael A. and Anna Danielova (2009), “The Worth of Product Placement in Successful Films: An Event Study Analysis,” Journal of Marketing, 73 (4), 44–63.
  • Williams, Leanne M., Belinda J. Liddell, Andrew H. Kemp, Richard A. Bryant, Russell A. Meares, Anthony S. Peduto, and Evian Gordon (2006), “Amygdala–Prefrontal Dissociation of Subliminal and Supraliminal Fear,” Human Brain Mapping, 27 (8), 652–61.
  • Wilson, Rick T. and Brian D. Till (2011), “Product Placement in Movies and on Broadway,” International Journal of Advertising, 30 (3), 373–98.
  • Wilson, Timothy D. and Nancy Brekke (1994), “Mental Contamination and Mental Correction: Unwanted Influences on Judgments and Evaluations,” Psychological bulletin, 116 (1), 117–42.
  • Wilson, Timothy D., Christopher E. Houston, and Jonathan M. Meyers (1998), “Choose Your Poison: Effects of Lay Beliefs about Mental Processes on Attitude Change,” Social Cognition, 16 (1), 114–32.
  • Winkielman, Piotr, Kent C. Berridge, and Julia L. Wilbarger (2001), “Doing without Feeling: Unconscious Affect Controls Human Consumption,” unpublished manuscript, Department of Psychology, University of Denver, CO 80208.
  • ________ (2005), “Unconscious Affective Reactions to Masked Happy versus Angry Faces Influence Consumption Behavior and Judgments of Value,” Personality & social psychology bulletin, 31 (1), 121–35.
  • Winkler, Tina and Kathy Buckner (2006), “Receotuvebess if Gamers to embedded Brand Messages in Advergames. Attitude towards Product Placement,” Journal of Interactive Advertising, 7 (1), 24–32.
  • Wise, Kevin, Paul D. Bolls, Hyo Kim, Arun Venkataraman, and Ryan Meyer (2008), “Enjoyment of Advergames and Brand Attitudes. The Impact of Thematic Relevance,” Journal of Interactive Advertising, 9 (1), 27–36.
  • Wright, Peter (1975), “Consumer Choice Strategies: Simplifying vs. Optimizing,” Journal of Marketing Research, 12 (1), 60–67.
  • ________ (2002), “Marketplace Metacognition and Social Intelligence,” Journal of Consumer Research, 28 (4), 677–82.
  • Wright, Peter, Marian Friestad, and David M. Boush (2005), “The Development of Marketplace Persuasion Knowledge in Children, Adolescents, and Young Adults,” Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 24 (2), 222–33.
  • Wright, Peter L. (1973), “The Cognitive Processes Mediating Acceptance of Advertising,” Journal of Marketing Research, 10 (1), 53–62.
  • ________ (1980), “Message-Evoked Thoughts: Persuasion Research Using Thought Verbalizations.,” Journal of Consumer Research, 7 (2), 151–75.
  • Wyer, Robert S., ed. (1997), The Automaticity of Everyday Life: Advances in Social Cognition, Mahawah, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • Wyer, Robert S. and Thomas K. Srull, eds. (1984), Handbook of Social Cognition, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • Yang, Moonhee and David R. Roskos-Ewoldsen (2007), “The Effectiveness of Brand Placements in the Movies: Levels of Placements, Explicit and Implicit Memory, and Brand-Choice Behavior,” Journal of Communication, 57 (3), 469–89.
  • Yang, Moonhee, David R. Roskos-Ewoldsen, Lucian Dinu, and Laura M. Arpan (2006), “The Effectiveness of “In-Game” Advertising: Comparing College Students’ Explicit and Implicit Memory for Brand Names,” Journal of Advertising, 35 (4), 143–52.
  • Yantis, Steven (2000), “Goal-Directed and Stimulus-Driven Determinants of Attentional Control,” in Control of Cognitive Processes, ed. Stephen Monsell and Jon Driver, Cambridge: Massachusetts Institute of Technology Press, 73–103.
  • Ye, Gewei and W. Fred van Raaij (1997), “What Inhibits the Mere-Exposure Effect: Recollection or Familiarity?” Journal of Economic Psychology, 18 (6), 629–48.
  • Yeung, Catherine W. M. and Wyer, Jr., Robert S. (2004), “Affect, Appraisal, and Consumer Judgment,” Journal of Consumer Research, 31 (2), 412–24.
  • Yi, Do-Joon, Geoffrey F. Woodman, David Widders, René Marois, and Marvin M. Chun (2004), “Neural Fate of Ignored Stimuli: Dissociable Effects of Perceptual and Working Memory Load,” Nature neuroscience, 7 (9), 992–96.
  • Yi, Youjae (1990), “The Effects of Contextual Priming in Print Advertisements,” Journal of Consumer Research, 17 (2), 215–22.
  • Yoo, Chan Y. (2007), “Implicit Memory Measures for Web Advertising Effectiveness,” Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 84 (1), 7–23.
  • ________ (2008), “Unconscious Processing of Web Advertising: Effects on Implicit Memory, Attitude toward The Brand, and Consideration Set,” Journal of Interactive Marketing, 22 (2), 2–18.
  • Young, Shirley (1972), “Copy Testing Without Magic Numbers,” Journal of Advertising Research, 12 (1), 3–12.
  • Zaichkowsky, Judith Lynne (1985), “Measuring the Involvement Construct,” Journal of Consumer Research, 12 (December), 341–52.
  • ________ (1986), “Conceptualizing Involvement,” Journal of Advertising, 15 (2), 4–14.
  • ________ (1994), “The Personal Involvement Inventory: Reduction, Revision, and Application to Advertising,” Journal of Advertising, 23 (4), 59–70.
  • Zajonc, Robert B. (1968), “Attitudinal Effects of Mere Exposure,” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 9 (2, Part 2), 1–27.
  • ________ (2001), “Mere Exposure: A Gateway to the Subliminal,” Current Directions in Psychological Science, 10 (6), 224–28.
  • Zeman, Adam (2001), “Consciousness,” Brain : a journal of neurology, 124 (7), 1263–89.
  • Zhu, Dong Hong and Ya Ping Chang (2015), “Effects of Interactions and Product Information on Initial Purchase Intention in Product Placement in Social Games. The Moderating Role of Product Familiarity,” Journal of Electronic Commerce Research,, 16 (1), 22–33.
  • Zimmermann, Manfred (1989), “The Nervous System in the Context of Information Theory,” in Human Physiology, ed. Robert F. Schmidt and Gerhard Thews, Berlin: Springer, 166–73.